The human brain is a highly evolved organ, which exhibits bilateral symmetry.
The brain is separated into two distinct cerebral hemispheres by median longitudinal fissures that are connected by the nervous tract called the corpus callosum. Although two hemispheres appear identical, they differ in their composition, neural networks, and functions.
There are many reports which suggest how genes and the environment together contribute to the development of differences and variability in brain morphology and their function. Since each human brain develops differently, each individual is shown to display unique lateralization.
The significance of lateralization lies in the identical division of system functions across two sides of the body. For instance, sensory processing such as facial perception, artistic ability, and visual, auditory stimuli are represented bilaterally.
The nerve fibers connecting the sensory organs to cortex region undergo a process called decussation which is intercrossing of nerve fibers. This phenomenon plays an important role in contralateral functions of brain.
Examples of lateralization
The lateralization of brain functions is typically studied based on behavioral trends displayed by healthy people. Usually each hemisphere of the brain is reported to represent one side of the body.
Based on the behavioral patterns exhibited by normal and healthy individuals, brain lateralization functions are studied. As per the data, each hemisphere is shown to represent one side of the body.
For instance, areas in the cerebellum region are shown to represent the same side of the body. On the contrary, forebrain areas are often reported to function on contralateral sides.
Further, lateralized functions such as intonation, semantics, accentuation, and prosody are shown to have a neuronal basis on both sides of the hemispheres.
Language functions such as vocabulary, grammar, and meanings are usually lateralized to the left hemisphere in 90% of right-handed individuals. Some of the functions of lateralization are also bilateral, where language functions are right lateralized in around 50% of left-handers.
Similarly, Brocaâ€™s area and Wernickeâ€™s areas are associated with functions of speech and comprehension of speech, respectively. These functions are exclusively lateralized to the left hemisphere in 95% of right-handers. However, separate speech areas have been identified in persons who can speak multiple languages.
Cerebral hemispheres also lateralize the processing function of sensory information through the left and right sides of the body.
For visual senses, half of the optic nerves undergo decussation to represent opposite sides of the brain while the rest half do not undergo any crossing and nerve fibers represent same side of the brain. The decussation indicates that the right side of the visual field is processed by the visual cerebral cortex of left side of the brain and left field is processed by right cortex of the brain.
For somatosensory or touch responses, the nerve fibers from the skin cross each other to represent contralateral sides of somatosensory cortex of brain.
Similarly, for auditory responses, 90% of auditory nerve fibers decussate to project the auditory cortex of opposite sides of brain.
Furthermore, besides sensory functions, the lateralization of brain is also involved in deciding and judging on values. For instance, right half is involved in dealing with comprehensive and symbolic interpretations while left is shown to deal with complex matters related to ethics, moral values and rules and regulations.
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