Phylogeny implies to the phylogenetic tree where each node represents a particular taxon or taxonomical unit. The branches of the tree indicate the evolutionary lineages. Phylogenetic analysis is performed to compare the phenotypic characteristics such as morphology, physiology, and behaviours of different organisms. The information from paleontological studies is also used to develop phylogenetic analysis. The use of molecular data such as chromosome number, allozymes, deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), ribonucleic acid (RNA), and amino acid sequences and DNA-DNA hybridization has started way back in the year 1960. Despite humongous growth in molecular data through rapid sequencing technologies, morphological and phenotypic information remains the gold standard in phylogenetic analysis and construction of evolutionary trees. Technologies like laser microscopy and micro computed-tomography scanner provide the right insights in understanding fossil and living taxa data. Such data is mostly stored in the database in the form of images and related information.
The key factor in understanding the phylogenetic analysis is by gaining knowledge of the terminology associated with it. Analogy implies a specific feature that is similar across a set of organisms but having different ancestors. The branch represents the edge of the phylogenetic tree, representing taxa. Characters are a set of variables that are specific as nucleotides and are represented by A, T, G, C, and U (instead of T if RNA contains uracil). Clade represents one kind of monophyletic group. The graph is a collection of many nodes and each node pair is named edges. When two or more organisms have similar DNA/RNA/Protein sequences and also share a common ancestor, it is called homologous sequences. Network or web is a collection of multiple paths that are structured based on the sequence similarities and branched according to the ancestors shared. Root indicates the point (node) which designates common ancestor, branched to other connected nodes.
The construction of an evolutionary tree has been well documented since the early 19th century especially based on the morphological, physical, and anatomical characteristics. The importance of such data can be explained by a simple example like genes related to echolocation of whales and bats share most consensus regions at the molecular level but when it comes to morphological characteristics, both have completely distinct features. This shows that the construction of proper evolutionary tree morphological/phenotypic data does play a vital role along with molecular information. The analysis of molecular phylogenetics is done based on the node-dating approach and tip-dating approach. Node-dating approach is one of the extensively used methods which has temporal information obtained from fossils. A database like fossilecalirations.org provides a storage repository for such data.
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