Designing and Analyzing Jobs Session 3 Your dream job

Designing and
Analyzing Jobs
Session 3
Your dream job
• Take 5 minutes – think about the job that you aspire to have.
• Write down 2-3 points about what makes the job so appealing
Job Analysis
• Job Analysis: The procedure for determining the tasks, duties,
and responsibilities of each job, and the human attributes (in
terms, of knowledge, skills, & abilities) required to perform it.
• HR Planning
• Recruitment & Selection
• Job Evaluations
• Performance Appraisal
• Labour Relations
• Training & Development
• Restructuring
Steps in Job Analysis
• a group of related activities/duties for one or more
• the collection of tasks/responsibilities performed by one
Job Analysis
• A process by which information about jobs is systematically
gathered and organized

Job Design
• Identification of job duties, characteristics, competencies and
sequences required to perform a specific job
• Should be aligned with organizational objectives
• Must also take into account the employee – what will motivate
them to perform the job well
Steps in Job Analysis
Step 6: Communicate and update information as needed
Step 5: Write job descriptions and job specifications
Step 4: Verify/modify data if required
Step 3: Collect data on job activities
Step 2: Select jobs to be analyzed
Step 1: Review relevant background information
Step 1: Review Relevant
Background Information
Organizational Structure
• the formal relationships among jobs in an organization
• should be appropriate given strategic goals
Organization Chart
• clarifies chain of command; who reports to whom
• does not explain communication patterns, degree of
supervision, power, authority, or specific duties
Step 2: Select Jobs to be Analyzed
Necessary when there are a number of similar jobs
Job Design
• the process of systematically organizing work into tasks that
are required to perform a specific job
Step 2: Select Jobs to be
Step 2: Select Jobs to be
The Evolution of Jobs and Job Design
Job Specialization
• work simplification
• industrial engineering
Behavioural Aspects
• job enlargement, job rotation, job enrichment, team-based job
Ergonomic Aspects
• physical needs of workers
Step 2: Select Jobs to be
Competency-Based Job Analysis
• Competencies: demonstrable characteristics that enable
performance of a job
• shift from job-specific duties to competencies in job descriptions;
emphasis on employee capabilities
• examples of competencies:
• general (reading, writing, mathematics)
• leadership (strategic thinking, motivating)
• technical competencies for specific jobs
Step 3: Collecting Job Analysis
• Interviews (individual, group, supervisory)
• Questionnaires
• Observations
• Participant diary/log
• National Occupation Classification (NOC)
Step 3: Collecting Job
Analysis Information
Step 4: Verifying Information
• Verify with:
• workers currently performing the job
• supervisors
• Increases validity and reliability
• inconsistencies/concerns can be addressed
• participants will be more honest
Step 5: Writing Job Descriptions
and Job Specifications
• Job Description
• Statement of duties, responsibilities, reporting relationships, and working
conditions of the job
• Job Specification
• Statement of requisite knowledge, skills, and abilities needed to perform the
• Job Summary
• The job summary should describe the general nature of the job, listing only its
major functions or activities.
• Job Identification
• Specifies the title of the job, the department, and location, along with the title
of the immediate supervisor
• Duties and Responsibilities
• Presents a detailed list of the job’s major duties and responsibilities.
• Authority
• Should define the limits of the jobholder’s authority
• Physical Demands Analysis
• Identification of the senses used and the type, frequency, and amount of
physical effort involved in a job.
Step 5: Writing Job Descriptions and Job
Human Rights Legislation Considerations
• not legally required but highly advisable
• essential job duties should be clearly identified
• the only criteria examined should be knowledge, skills, and abilities
required for the essential duties of the job
• when an employee cannot perform an essential duty because of
reasons related to a prohibited ground, reasonable accommodation
to the point of undue hardship is required
Step 5: Writing Job Descriptions and Job
Job Specifications
• answers the question “What human traits and experience are
required to do this job?”
• all listed qualifications are bona fide occupational requirements
• unjustifiably high educational/experience requirements may lead to
systemic discrimination
• qualifications of incumbents should not be confused with the
minimum requirements
• for entry-level jobs, identify actual physical and mental demands
Step 6: Communication and
Preparedness for Revisions
• communicate to all relevant stakeholders
• anticipate modifications
• restructuring
• new product development
• technological changes
• competitors
Step 6: Communication and
Preparedness for Revisions
Evolution of Jobs and Job Design
• Job Specialization
• work simplification
• industrial engineering
• Behavioural Aspects
• job enlargement, job rotation, job enrichment, team based job
• Ergonomic Aspects
• physical needs of workers
• Competency-Based Job Analysis
• demonstrable characteristics that enable performance of a job
• examples of competencies:
• general (reading, writing, mathematics)
• leadership (strategic thinking, motivating)
• technical/task/functional (technical competencies)

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