Management theory to highlight similarities

strategy from 2007-2017 and map to what degree and
how innovation and strategy have been treated together
in prior research. We identify themes covered in this
research and reveal that the papers that link these
research areas are extensively cited. Still, a lot of work
remains to be done, and fusing core properties of
strategy theory with recent ideas from innovation
literature we believe is both obtainable and prudent at
the present time.
The structure of this paper can be described as follows.
First, we present extant strategy and innovation
management theory to highlight similarities and
differences across these two bodies of research and pose
our research question. Second, we explain the method
applied in the search, review, and analysis of the
reviewed papers. Third, we present the findings from our
analysis of the extant body of literature addressing
strategy and innovation. And, finally, we offer a
concluding discussion with implications on future
developments for research and practice.
‘)0
Going back to Schumpeter and the notion of ‘creative
destruction’ (Schumpeter, 1949), the need for innovation
&+)’,+!’&
The essential role of innovation and entrepreneurship
in the sustainability of a firm’s competitiveness was
pointed out by Schumpeter (1949). However, it
remains conceptually unclear how extant strategy
frameworks explicitly integrate and build on a
Schumpeterian paradigm. Despite efforts to develop
an improved understanding of how strategy and
innovation theory can be integrated (e.g. Ramanujam
& Mensch, 1985; Pisano, 2015; Teece et al. 2016),
strategy theory has only to a limited degree become
fused with ideas from innovation theory. In a
contemporary business environment where the
biggest and most valuable technology firms (FAANG:
Facebook, Apple, Amazon, Netflix, and Google) are
distinguished by their innovation capacity and
capability, it is problematic that innovation activities
predominantly remain outside the strategy theory
domain.
To fill this void, we offer the results from a structured
literature search in the Web of Science and EBSCO
databases that attempt to integrate strategy and
innovation research. In particular we review the
highest ranked journals in the area of innovation and
Understanding the Strategy-Innovation Link
in an Era of Disruptions
Karl Joachim Breunig & Tale Skjølsvik
Whereas innovation and strategy traditionally are treated as two separate fields of expertise and
research, this conceptual paper aims to identify how strategy theory can be linked to recent
developments within the innovation field. Innovation research seeks to explain the process of creating
new products and services. Strategy research, in turn, intends to explain how businesses create lasting
competitive advantages. In recent years, research in strategy has shifted towards explaining how
organizational capabilities and environmental turbulence are related, increasingly recognizing that it
is difficult to retain sustainable competitive advantages, unless market dynamics and business renewal
are addressed. To establish a systematic integration and analysis, we present the results of an extensive
literature review of 1,268 research articles published between 2007-2017 to address the question: To
what degree, and how, have strategy and innovation been linked in leading management journals? Our
analysis reveals that research addressing both strategy and innovation is limited, but highly cited.
Moreover, we identify 5 main themes, which in turn reflected 12 subsidiary themes addressed in extant
research. These themes combine to give important insights about the research that been done and
what is likely to be needed going forward.
The best way to predict the future is to create it.
Peter Druck
and entrepreneurship is recognized in most firms as a
way to guarantee their sustained competitiveness.
However, innovation and strategy have traditionally
been treated as two separate fields of expertise and
research. Innovation research seeks to explain the
process of creating new products and services (Burns &
Stalkers, 1961). Innovation is largely regarded as a
social process consisting of three core activities
(Newell et al., 2009). The first activity is the generation
of new solutions, also referred to as ‘invention’. Then
the act of diffusion follows, which denotes the process
of spreading the new solution to other individuals so
that they also get an understanding of it. Finally, the
innovation process depends on implementation, that
is, other individuals and communities also start using
the new solution.
Innovation strategy refers to articulating the role of
innovation in achieving organizational aims (Cooper,
2001), by aligning the overall business strategy with
innovation decisions (Menor & Roth, 2007). Recent
innovation management research has documented
how firms utilize their resources and capabilities for
the development of innovations, such as new
products, services, or processes (Hill et al., 2015), and
explicitly link resources and processes to innovation
success (Froehle & Roth, 2007; Aas et al., 2015).
Furthermore, research has shown a positive
relationship between the implementation of
innovation activities and future business performance
(Bowen et al., 2010; Rubera & Kirca, 2012). Indeed,
several authors (Easingwood, 1990; Johne & Storey,
1998) stress that it is important to set clear goals for the
innovation program as a whole. Empirical studies
similarly suggest that leading firms are likely to have an
explicit innovation strategy (Cooper et al., 2002). In
recent years, the focus of research on innovation
management has primarily been concerned with
innovations related to physical products (Droege et al.,
2009), while limited work has also been done to
systematically review and categorize the different
attempts to create a more explicit strategy-innovation
link.
In contrast, strategy research aims to explain how
businesses create lasting competitive advantages
(Porter, 1985). The field of strategic management is
nevertheless fragmented and overlaps with a number
of theoretical fields, such as economics, sociology,
marketing, finance, and psychology (Nag et al., 2007).
In the late 1970s, the field was in its infancy and relabelled from ‘business policy’ (Schendel & Hofer,
1979). Due to the diversity of the field, a coherent
established definition of strategic management has been
lacking (Mintzberg et al., 1998). Based on a major survey
of other scholars’ research, Nag et al. (2007) defined
‘strategic management’ as “intended and emergent
initiatives, taken by managers or on behalf of the
owners, involving utilization of resources, to enhance
the performance of firms in their external environment”.
Strategic management research was in its early days
largely rooted in what is referred to as the StructureConduct-Performance tradition. It is most notably
captured in Porter’s influential contributions (Porter,
1980, 1985), in which competitive advantage is assumed
to be based on industry or strategic group, a group of
companies within the same industry that have a similar
strategic profile, and are only to a limited degree linked
to innovation. In parallel, Mintzberg and colleagues
(Mintzberg, 1978; Mintzberg & Waters, 1985; Mintzberg
& McHugh, 1985) argued for an alternative view on
strategic management, proposing that not all formal
strategies are implemented as intended, and that many
implemented strategies emerge from outside of the
scope of ex ante analyses and plans. Innovation was thus
not a key orientation of these earlier theories on strategy.
More recently, research in strategy has shifted towards
explaining how organizational capabilities and
environmental turbulence are related, increasingly
recognizing that it is difficult to retain sustainable
competitive advantages unless market dynamics and
business renewal are considered (Teece et al., 1997).
Given rapid market changes and innovation pressure,
caused for example by digitalization, an explication of
how strategy relates to innovation is needed. To succeed
in a globalized business environment characterized by
hyper-velocity (Francis & Bessant, 2005; Crossan &
Apaydin, 2010), it has been claimed that organizations
need to manage change in increasingly volatile and
complex service eco-systems (Yoo & Kim, 2015). Under
such conditions, dynamic capabilities possessed by
firms have been linked to their sustained
competitiveness (Eisenhardt, 2004), and claimed to be
central to innovation (Tidd, 2012). However, the ability
to replicate dynamic capabilities and innovation success
over time has not been firmly established in extant
research.
In the early 2000s, an entrepreneurial perspective on
strategy gained ground, emphasizing value creation
rather than appropriation (Hitt et al., 2001). The
multiplicity and complexity of strategic management, as
Understanding the Strategy-Innovation Link in an Era of Disruptions
Karl Joachim Breunig & Tale Skjølsvik
well as the need to consider balances and paradoxes,
have also been recognized in recent strategy research.
Some examples include dealing with business
ambidexterity (Tushman & O’Reilly, 1996; Birkinshaw
& Gibson, 2004) by balancing exploration (innovation)
and exploitation (the productivity of existing solutions
and products), and managing paradoxes (Eisenhardt,
2000). Still, strategy theory has to a limited degree been
fused with ideas from innovation theory (Markides,
2006; Lightfoot & Gebauer, 2011; Pisano, 2015; Teece et
al., 2016). The blue ocean strategy (Kim & Mauborgne,
2004), business model innovation (Christensen &
Johnson, 2009; Teece, 2010; Osterwalder & Pigneur,
2010; Zott et al., 2011; Foss and Saebi, 2017), dynamic
capabilities (Kogut & Zander, 1992; Barnett et al., 1994;
Teece et al., 1997; Eisenhardt & Martin, 2000, Helfat &
Peteraf, 2003), and disruption theory (Christensen,
1997; Markides, 2006; Manyika et al., 2013; O’Reilly III
& Tushman, 2016) are notable exceptions.
+ ‘*
The aim of this study is to review research that aims to
bridge strategy and innovation in highly ranked
journals. In doing this, we took an inductive approach,
with both qualitative and quantitative analysis. This
approach enabled us to develop a solid understanding
of the areas where strategy and innovation has been
interlinked. It also enabled us to tease out dominant
themes in this research, as well as potential avenues for
future research.
3.1 Data collection and compilation
In doing a systematic literature review, one typically
goes through three main phases: planning, which
involves the identification of the research question and
defining boundaries; conducting, which involves
searching for and analysis of relevant literature; and
reporting, that is, formalizing the findings and
developing implications (Tranfield et al., 2003; Ashby et
al., 2012). The first two phases will be described here,
while the third phase is described in the Findings
section.
In the planning phase, we first formulated our research
question. We then defined the boundaries of our study
to include academic articles published during the
period 2007-2017 in the eight top strategy and
innovation journals globally, as listed by 2015
Association of Business Schools academic journal
guide (ABS list) (Harvey, 2012). The ABS-list has
separate categories for both innovation and strategy
with four top journals at level 4 in each field. These
journals are for strategy: Strategic Management Journal,
Global Strategy Journal, Long Range Planning, and
Strategic Organization; and for innovation: Journal of
Product Innovation Management, Research Policy, R&D
Management, and Technovation.
The ABS list is the most comprehensive and frequently
used ranking list among business research scholars
around the world when choosing publication outlets. It
is the dominant source used to evaluate business
research across Europe and the US. Thus, limiting the
scope of journals to the ABS list suggests that the
research included in the literature review is likely to be
of high quality and reliability.
After having identified the research question and the
scope of the study, we continued to the conducting
phase. In this phase it was important to develop a
database of articles that integrates innovation and
strategy. In doing so, we used The Web of Science Social
Sciences Citation Index (SSCI). Due to different search
categories and search methods, we had to use different
search terms across databases. We used the search terms
innovati* strateg*, where the asteric means all words that
include this start, thus allowing ‘strategic’ and ‘strategy’
as well as ‘innovative’ and ‘innovation’ to be part of the
search. Our investigation covered a search term in Web
of Science referred to as Topic, which includes abstract,
author keywords, and Keywords Plus, the latter which
are index terms created by database managers based on
frequently occurring words in the titles of references
cited in an article. Thus, our search basically covered all
relevant available information in Web of Science, as full
text searches are not possible.
The search resulted in a total of 1,268 hits. To limit the
scope of the qualitative analysis and to ensure relevance
of the included papers, only papers with both strategy
and innovation in the abstract among these papers were
compiled into a separate dataset of 381 papers. This was
done by using the EBSCO database, which allows for
specific searches in the abstract, a function not available
in Web of Science.
3.2 Data analysis
The data analysis included both quantitative and
qualitative components. In particular, the analysis was
conducted in two main phases: 1) familiarization and
description of the data based on quantitative methods,
and 2) identification and analysis of key research themes
based on qualitative methods and descriptive
Understanding the Strategy-Innovation Link in an Era of Disruptions
Karl Joachim Breunig & Tale Skjølsvi
quantitative analysis of the identified themes. In the
familiarization phase, we developed an overview of the
research that include both innovation and strategy. In
particular, the following variables was mapped: 1)
number of papers over time, 2) emphasis across
journals, and 3) citations. These could be directly
mapped form the results of the search. In addition, we
did qualitative analysis in order to classify the different
papers. This was done based on a classification of the
content of the abstract. In particular, each abstract was
first classified inductively and based on a research
centric orientation, following Gioia et al. (2013). In
turn, these classifications were further compared to
research-based themes and classified at a more
aggregate level for comparison. To the degree that the
abstract mentioned theory and methodology used in
the paper, it was included in the classification of the
paper and added to the database.
!&!&*
The findings will be presented in the two parts: (1) A
descriptive overview of number of papers, journals and
citations over time, and (2) The main themes covered in
the research, including count.
4.1 Descriptive overview of papers
The number of papers in this area has been relatively
stable over time, with some fluctuation over the last 4
years. The general trend is a slight increase, but no
significant trend. Among other reasons, this is partly
caused by the limited number of journals that cover this
area, in which only so many papers are published every
year. Please see figure 1 for a general overview of the
data over time. In the figure, the Web of Science search
as explained above covers the 1,268 papers, while the
EBSCO search only incorporates the 381 papers with
both innovation and strategy in the abstract. The trend
of greater elaboration and a database with both
innovation and strategy in the abstract is very similar.
In terms of the types of journals covered in the search,
the top journals within the innovation discipline seemed
to consider strategy to be an important area of research.
!,) Overview of identified publications per selected journal
!,) Overview of number of selected publications over time
Understanding the Strategy-Innovation Link in an Era of Disruptions
Karl Joachim Breunig & Tale Skjøls
In contrast, primarily only two of the top strategy
journals have papers that link strategy and innovation,
while interest within the field of strategy is much more
limited. Figure 2 provides an overview of the identified
publications outlets.
!,) Overview of selected journals measured in citations (March 2018)
When one looks at the impact of research that has been
done that deals with both innovation and strategy, the
average citation rate in all the journals is very high.
Thus, scholars in other fields have shown interest in
the work that is being done in this area.
Figure 3 shows that the average number of citations
per paper is extremely high for papers that cover both
areas. As the selection of papers gets more narrow – as
in the case where only papers with the concepts of
innovation and strategy in the abstract is included – the
number of citations in 6 out of 8 journals increase.
Further, the number of citations in the strategy
journals is considerably higher than in the innovation
journals.
4.2 The main themes covered in the research
Through a tedious classification process explained
under that data analysis section above, the 381 papers
were inductively reduced into 5 main themes, which in
turn reflected 12 subsidiary themes. Of these 5 themes, 3
of them was primarily oriented towards innovation and
marketing with a more limited relevance to strategy.
These were: conditions of ecosystem, business
relationships and policies, fundamentals in terms of
governance and technology, and value creation in terms
of design, product, and customer. Additionally, two
areas were identified that illustrated the bridge between
strategy and innovation as opposed to emphasizing
primarily one over the other: value appropriation in
terms of the choice of an open versus protected
!,) Overview of identified themes
Understanding the Strategy-Innovation Link in an Era of Disruptions
Karl Joachim Breunig & Tale Skjølsv
approach to innovation, and the strategy-innovation
link, which includes business models, innovation
strategy, and disruption.
4.3 The strategy-innovation link
The research where strategy and innovation are linked
concerns 3 main areas: business models, disruption
and innovation strategy. Business models had the
highest total number of citations, with an average of 79
citations per publication. Of the 18 publications, a
conceptual paper by Teece (2010) was cited 1,047 times
and largely drives this number, as a seminal paper on
business models. For the rest of the papers, the average
number of citations was 21. Many of these papers are
relatively recent and all the papers were published
between 2010-2017. In particular, various papers deal
with the concept of a business model (Baden-Fuller &
Morgan, 2010; Teece, 2010; DaSilva & Trkman, 2014)
and different ways of making innovations in the
business model, for example, based on pricing and
payment models as well as resources (Corrocher and
Zirulia, 2010; Denicolai et al., 2014; Winterhalter et al.,
2017). Some of the later contributions, (Spieth et al.,
2014; Cortimiglia et al., 2016) identify the interlinkage
between business models and strategy-making.
In addition to business models, innovation strategy is
mentioned as a key area. This area emphasizes several
different strategic decisions that companies need to
make in their innovation efforts. In particular, it
concerns short and long term decisions in R&D (Artés,
2009; Flammer & Bansal, 2017), the decision to exploit
versus explore knowledge ( Hernández-Espallardo et
al., 2011; Bauer & Leker, 2013; Piao & Zajac, 2016; Enkel
et al., 2017), internal versus external R&D resources
(Hagedoorn & Wang, 2012), and whether to offshore
R&D activities (Nieto & Rodríguez, 2011; Rodríguez &
Nieto, 2012; Steinberg et al., 2017).
Finally, disruption deals with how existing industries
face disruptive business models or technology
innovations. A lot of what has been written with
regards to strategy and innovation in this area deals
with incumbent reactions (Awate et al., 2012; Huesig et
al., 2014) and the role of the government (Ruan et al.,
2014).
4.4Value appropriation
In addition to the direct link between strategy and
innovation in existing research, the literature points to
value appropriation as an essential area of research
where these fields are integrated. In particular it deals
with the strategic difference it makes in an organization
when it comes to choosing openness or protectionism,
which seems rooted in the dichotomy of a relational
versus a transactional orientation in organization. Two
main areas have gained interest: patents and intellectual
properly strategy (IPS) versus open innovation. These
areas stand in strong contrast in most cases and
represent an important strategic choice in the area of
innovation strategy.
With regards to open innovation, a number of areas have
been studied, such as motivations (Appleyard &
Chesbrough, 2017) and trade-offs between openness
and protection (Raasch et al., 2009; Knudsen &
Mortensen, 2011). In the area of IP protection, several
papers have dealt with how organizations make
protection decisions (Gallié & Legros, 2012), the use of
licensing (Gallié & Legros, 2012; Großmann et al., 2016),
standard catch-up collection and use of patents
(Schmidt, 2013; Jell et al., 2017).
!*,**!’&
Most contemporary organizations face challenges
related to achieving sustainability and advantages in
periods of market change. This is particularly salient in
times of digital disruption and in the face of the so-called
‘4th industrial revolution’. These changes demand
innovation to be integrated as a central part of a
company’s organizational strategy. In addressing the
societal level, a key emphasis is now placed on
‘ecosystems’ and ‘value networks’, with extensive
research focusing on the innovation context beyond
organizations, such as within cross-organizational
collaboration or caused as a response to particular
policies and regulation. At this level, the main focus is on
innovation theory, which has identified a few links to
strategy theory.
At the organizational level, business strategy is
increasingly being merged with the core properties of
innovation theory, which are to obtain scalability and
differentiation into “blue ocean strategies”. Likewise,
visionary and transformative leadership styles are
merging with ideas from entrepreneurship research to
address creativity and values. At the value creation and
appropriation level, the core issue relates to protection
of innovation advantages, where open source innovation
and a proprietary approach stand in strong contrast to
each other. This value creation and appropriation
Understanding the Strategy-Innovation Link in an Era of Disruptions
Karl Joachim Breunig & Tale Skjølsvi
tradition is also largely rooted in innovation theory
tradition. These different levels are illustrated in Figure
5.
The core of the strategy-innovation link incorporates a
combination of theories that directly look at business
models, disruption, and innovation. Future research
should use these different levels to further develop an
understanding of how innovation can be transformed
into and integrated with strategy.

‘&$,*!’&
In this study we have conducted a structured literature
review to assess to what degree strategy and innovation
have been linked in research conducted in leading
management journals. The analysis shows that links
between the two main concepts have been made at three
different levels of analysis: 1) at the societal level, 2) the
organizational level, and finally 3) at the value creation
and appropriation level. Additionally, the review shows a
theoretical link between the concepts business model,
disruption, and strategy innovation.
By discussing how innovation and market characteristics
affect business strategy, the paper contributes to
knowledge on the strategy-innovation link. The
conclusions reported here may provide considerable
assistance to managers who are searching for better
ways to develop strategy and manage their
organizations, while increasing their innovative abilities
and capacities. By pointing to different theoretical
positions, managers can get a sense of which theoretical
perspectives to consider in their efforts to develop their
organizations into the future. While strategy in many
organizations has up until now used analyses in the form
of five forces, the Boston Consulting Group’s (BCG)
matrix, the resource based view of the firm, and other
approaches, we believe that managers in the future
should think freshly in terms of the types of theories they
build their strategy work on, if one of their key objectives
is value creation and innovation, as opposed to value
appropriation. The paper suggests that as innovation to
a larger degree becomes a key objective in many
saturated organizations under conditions of change,
business model theory, disruption theory, and
innovation strategy should take place as core theoretical
perspectives for organizations in their strategy
processes.
Nevertheless, the conceptual nature of the study has
limitations and further empirical research is needed to
explore and test if the conclusions of the discussion are
to reach beyond the provided categories.
!,) Levels and details of the strategy-innovation link
Understanding the Strategy-Innovation Link in an Era of Disruptions
Karl Joachim Breunig & Tale Skjølsv
)&*
Aas, T.H., Breunig, K.J., Hydle, K.M. & Pedersen, P. 2015.
Innovation Management Practices in ProductionIntensive Services: An Exploratory Investigation.
International Journal of Innovation Management, 19:
1-28.
Appleyard, M.M. & Chesbrough, H.W. 2017. The
Dynamics of Open Strategy: From Adoption to
Reversion. Long Range Planning, 50: 310-321.
Artés, J. 2009. Long-Run Versus Short-Run Decisions:
R&D and Market Structure in Spanish Firms. Research
Policy, 38: 120-132.
Ashby, A., Leat, M. & Hudson-Smith, M. 2012. Making
Connections: A Review of Supply Chain Management
and Sustainability Literature. Supply Chain
Management: An International Journal, 17: 497-516.
Awate, S., Larsen, M.M. & Mudambi, R. 2012. Emne
Catch Up Strategies in the Wind Turbine Industry:
Is There a Trade Off Between Output and
Innovation Capabilities? Global Strategy Journal, 2:
205-223.
Baden-Fuller, C. & Morgan, M.S. 2010. Business Models
as Models. Long Range Planning, 43: 156-171.
Barnett, W. P., Greve, H.R. & Park, D. Y. 1994. An
Evolutionary Model of Organizational Performance.
Strategic Management Journal, 15: 11-28
Bauer, M. & Leker, J. 2013. Exploration and Exploitation
in Product and Process Innovation in the Chemical
Industry. R&D Management, 43: 196-212.
Birkinshaw, J. & Gibson, C. 2004. Building Ambidexterity
into an Organization. Academy of Management
Journal, 47: 209-226.
Bowen, F.E., Rostami, M. & Steel, P. 2010. Timing is
Everything: A Meta-Analysis of the Relationships
Between Organizational Performance and
Innovation. Journal of Business Research, 63: 1179-
1185.
Burns, T. & Stalkers, G.M. 1961. The Management of
Innovation. Oxford University Press.
Christensen, C.M. 1997. The Innovator’s Dilemma:When
New Technologies Cause Great Firms to Fail. Harvard
Business School Press.
Christensen, C.M. & Johnson, M.W. 2009. What Are
Business Models, And How Are They Built? Harvard
Business School, Module Note 610-019, August.
Cooper, R.G. 2001. Winning at New Products:
Accelerating The Process From Idea To Launch, 3rd
Edition. Cambridge, Perseus Publishing.
Cooper, R.G., Edgett, S.J. & Kleinschmidt, E.J. 2002.
Optimizing the Stage-Gate Process: What BestPractice Companies Doing. Research Technology
Management, 45: 21-27.
Corrocher, N. & Zirulia, L. 2010. Demand and
Innovation in Services: The Case of Mobile
Communications. Research Policy, 39: 945-955.
Cortimiglia, M.N., Ghezzi, A. & Frank, A.G. 2016.
Business Model Innovation and Strategy Making
Nexus: Evidence from a Cross Industry
Mixed Methods Study. R&D Management, 46: 414-
432.
Crossan, M.M. & Apaydin, M. 2010. A
Multi Dimensional Framework of Organizational
Innovation: A Systematic Review of the Literature.
Journal of Management Studies, 47: 1154-1191.
Dasilva, C.M. & Trkman, P. 2014. Business Model: What
it is and What it is not. Long Range Planning, 47: 379-
389.
Denicolai, S., Ramirez, M. & Tidd, J. 2014. Creating and
Capturing Value from External Knowledge: The
Moderating Role of Knowledge Intensity. R&D
Management, 44: 248-264.
Droege, H., Hildebrand, D. & Forcada, M.A.H. 2009.
Innovation in Services: Present Findings, and Future
Pathways. Journal of Service Management, 20: 131-
155.
Easingwood, C.J. Service Design and Service Strategies.
1990. First International Research Seminar in Service
Management. Institute D’administration Des
Enterprises, Aix-En-Provence, France: 188-190.
Eisenhardt, K.M. 2000. Paradox, Spirals, Ambivalence:
The New Language of Change and Pluralism.
Academy of Management Review, 25: 703-705.
Eisenhardt, K.M. 2004. Speed and Strategic Change:
How Managers Accelerate Decision Making. In: Katz,
R. (Ed.) The Human Side of Managing Technological
Innovation. New York: Oxford University Press.
Eisenhardt, K.M. & Martin, J.A. 2000. Dynamic
Capabilities: Why are They? Strategic Management
Journal, 21: 1105-1121.
Enkel, E., Heil, S., Hengstler, M. & Wirth, H. 2017.
Exploratory and Exploitative Innovation: To What
Extent Do the Dimensions of Individual Level
Absorptive Capacity Contribute? Technovation, 60:
29-38.
Flammer, C. & Bansal, P. 2017. Does a Long-Term
Orientation Create Value? Evidence from a
Regression Discontinuity. Strategic Management
Journal, 38: 1827-1847.
Foss, N.J. & Saebi, T. 2017. Fifteen Years of Research on
Business Model Innovation: How Far Have We Come,
and Where Should We Go? Journal of Management,
43: 200-227.
Francis, D. & Bessant, J. 2005. Targeting Innovation and
Implications for Capability Development.
Technovation, 25: 171-183.
Understanding the Strategy-Innovation Link in an Era of Disruptions
Karl Joachim Breunig & Tale Skjølsvik
Froehle, C.M. & Roth, A.V. 2007. A Resource-Process
Framework of New Service Development. Production
and Operations Management, 16, 169-188.
Gallié, E.-P. & Legros, D. 2012. French Firms’ Strategies
for Protecting Their Intellectual Property. Research
Policy, 41: 780-794.
Gioia, D.A., Corley, K. G. & Hamilton, A.L. 2013. Seeking
Qualitative Rigor in Inductive Research Notes on The
Gioia Methodology. Organizational Research
Methods, 16: 15-31.
Großmann, A.M., Filipovi , E. & Lazina, L. 2016. The
Strategic Use of Patents and Standards for New
Product Development Knowledge Transfer. R&D
Management: 46, 312-325.
Hagedoorn, J. & Wang, N. 2012. Is There
Complementarity or Substitutability Between
Internal and External R&D Strategies? Research Policy,
41: 1072-1083.
Harvey, J. F. 2012. Managing Organizational Memory
with Intergenerational Knowledge Transfer. Journal
Of Knowledge Management, 16: 400-417.
Helfat, C.E. & Peteraf, M.A. 2003. The Dynamic
Resource-Based View: Capability Lifecycles. Strategic
Management Journal, 24: 997-1010.
Hernández-Espallardo, M., Sánchez-Pérez, M. &
Segovia-López, C. 2011. Exploitation- and
Exploration-Based Innovations: The Role of
Knowledge in Inter-Firm Relationships with
Distributors. Technovation, 31: 203-215.
Hill, L.A., Brandeau, G., Truelove, E. & Lineback, K.
2015. The Capabilities Your Organization Needs to
Sustain Innovation. Harvard Business Review.
Hitt, M.A., Bierman, L., Shimizu, K. & Kochhar, R. 2001.
Direct and Moderating Effects of Human Capital on
Strategy and Performance in Professional Service
Firms: A Resource-Based Perspective. Academy of
Management Journal, 44: 13-28.
Huesig, S., Timar, K. & Doblinger, C. 2014. The Influence
of Regulation and Disruptive Potential on
Incumbents’ Submarket Entry Decision and Success
in the Context of a Network Industry. Journal Of
Product Innovation Management, 31: 1039-1056.
Jell, F., Henkel, J. & Wallin, M.W. 2017. Offensive Patent
Portfolio Races. Long Range Planning, 50: 531-549.
Johne, A. & Storey, C. 1998. New Service Development:
A Review of the Literature and Annotated
Bibliography. European Journal of Marketing, 32: 184.
Kim, W.C. & Mauborgne, R. 2004. Blue Ocean Strategy.
Harvard Business Review: 76-84.
Knudsen, M.P. & Mortensen, T.B. 2011. Some
Immediate-But Negative–Effects of Openness on
Product Development Performance. Technovation,
31: 54-64.
Kogut, B. & Zander, U. 1992. Knowledge of the Firm,
Combinative Capabilities, and the Replication of
Technology. Organization Science, 3: 383-398.
Lightfoot, H.W. & Gebauer, H. 2011. Exploring the
Alignment Between Service Strategy and Service
Innovation. Journal of Service Management, 22: 664-
683.
Manyika, J., Chui, M., Bughin, J., Bisson, P. & Marrs, A.
2013. Disruptive Technologies: Advances That Will
Transform Life, Business, and the Global Economy. San
Fransisco, Ca, Us: Mckinsey Global Institute.
Markides, C. 2006. Disruptive Innovation: In Need of
Better Theory. Journal of Product Innovation
Management, 23: 19-25.
Menor, L.J. & Roth, A.V. 2007. New Service Development
Competence in Retail Banking: Construct
Development and Measurement Validation. Journal
of Operations Management, 25: 825-846.
Mintzberg, H. 1978. Patterns in Strategy Formation.
Management Science, 24: 934-948.
Mintzberg, H., Ahlstrand, B. & Lampel, J. 1998. Strategy
Safari. London, Prentice Hall.
Mintzberg, H. & Mchugh, A. 1985. Strategy Formation in
an Adhocracy. McGill University.
Mintzberg, H. & Waters, J.A. 1985. of Strategies,
Deliberate and Emergent. Strategic Management
Journal, 6: 257-272.
Nag, R., Hambrick, D.C. & Chen, M.-J. 2007. What is
Strategic Management, Really? Inductive Derivation
of a Consensus Definition of the Field. Strategic
Management Journal, 28: 935-955.
Newell, S., Robertsen, M., Scarbrough, H. & Swan, J.
2009. Managing Knowledge Work and Innovation.
Basingstoke, Palgrave Macmillan.
Nieto, M.J. & Rodríguez, A. 2011. Offshoring of R&D:
Looking Abroad to Improve Innovation Performance.
Journal of International Business Studies, 42: 345-361.
O’Reilly Iii, C.A. & Tushman, M.L. 2016. Lead and
Disrupt: How to Solve the Innovator’s Dilemma.
Stanford University Press.
Osterwalder, A. & Pigneur, Y. 2010. Business Model
Generation: A Handbook for Visionaries, Game
Changers, and Challengers. John Wiley & Sons.
Piao, M. & Zajac, E.J. 2016. How Exploitation Impedes
and Impels Exploration: Theory and Evidence.
Strategic Management Journal, 37: 1431-1447.
Pisano, G.P. 2015. You Need an Innovation Strategy.
Harvard Business Review, 93: 44-54.
Porter, M.E. 1980. Competitive Strategy. New York, Free
Press.
Porter, M.E. 1985. Competitive Advantage: Creating and
Sustaining Superior Performance. New York, The Free
Press.
Raasch, C., Herstatt, C. & Balka, K. 2009. On the Open
Design of Tangible Goods. R&D Management, 39:
382-393.
Understanding the Strategy-Innovation Link in an Era of Disruptions
Karl Joachim Breunig & Tale Skjølsvik
‘,+ + ,+ ‘)*
Karl Joachim Breunig is a Full Professor of Strategic
Management at the Oslo Business School, Oslo
Metropolitan University – OsloMet, where he is
heading the research group on Digital Innovation
and Strategic Competence in Organizations
(DISCO). He received his Ph.D. from BI Norwegian
Business School, and holds a MSc from London
School of Economics. Prof. Breunig’s research
concentrates on the interception of strategy and
innovation theory, and involves topics such as
service- and business model innovation as well as
digitalization in knowledge intensive firms.
Tale Skjølsvik is a Full Professor of Technology
Management, and the Vice-Dean of Research at the
Faculty of Technology, Art & Design at OsloMet.
She holds a Ph.D. in Strategic Management from BI
Norwegian Business School and has experience as
a management consultant from Bain & Company
and Gemini Consulting. Tale develops and runs
executive education within strategic management
and digital transformation, consults organizations
and does ostensive public speaking. Her research
interests concentrate on the strategic management,
innovation, digitalization and procurement of
knowledge intensive services and firms.
Citation: Breunig, K., and Skjølsvik, T. 2020. Understanding the
Strategy-Innovation Link in an Era of Disruptions. Technology
Innovation Management Review, 10(8): 4-13.
http://doi.org/10.22215/timreview/1377
Keywords: Conceptual research, disruption, organizational
capabilities, structured literature review, strategy-innovation link.
Ramanujam, V. & Mensch, G. O. 1985. Improving the
Strategy-Innovation Link. Journal of Product
Innovation Management, 2: 213-223.
Rodríguez, A. & Nieto, M.J. 2012. The
Internationalization of Knowledge-Intensive
Business Services: The Effect of Collaboration and
the Mediating Role of Innovation. Service Industries
Journal, 32: 1057-1075.
Ruan, Y., Hang, C.C. & Wang, Y.M. 2014. Government’s
Role in Disruptive Innovation and Industry
Emergence: The Case of the Electric Bike in China.
Technovation, 34: 785-796.
Rubera, G. & Kirca, A.H. 2012. Firm Innovativeness and
its Performance Outcomes: A Meta-Analytic Review
and Theoretical Integration. Journal of Marketing,
76: 130-147.
Schendel, D. & Hofer, C.W. 1979. Strategic
Management: A New View of Business Policy and
Planning. Little, Brown.
Schmidt, M.P. 2013. Patent Strategies in the
Process Related Industries: Outline of the
Problems. R&D Management, 43: 242-251.
Schumpeter, J.A. 1949. Economic Theory and
Entrepreneurial History, from Change and the
Entrepreneur. Cambridge, Ma., Harvard University
Press.
Spieth, P., Schneckenberg, D. & Ricart, J.E. 2014.
Business Model Innovation–State of the Art and
Future Challenges for the Field. R&D Management,
44: 237-247.
Steinberg, P.J., Procher, V.D. & Urbig, D. 2017. Too
Much or Too Little of R&D Offshoring: The Impact of
Captive Offshoring and Contract Offshoring on
Innovation Performance. Research Policy, 46: 1810-
1823.
Teece, D. 2010. Business Models, Business Strategy and
Innovation. Long Range Planning, 43: 172-194.
Teece, D., Peteraf, M. & Leih, S. 2016. Dynamic
Capabilities and Organizational Agility. California
Management Review, 58: 13-35.
Teece, D.J., Pisano, G. & Shuen, A. 1997. Dynamic
Capabilities and Strategic Management. Strategic
Management Journal, 18: 509-534.
Tidd, J. 2012. From Knowledge Management to Strategic
Competence: Assessing Technological, Market and
Organizational Innovation. London, Imperial
College Press.
Tranfield, D., Denyer, D. & Smart, P. 2003. Towards a
Methodology for Developing Evidence Informed
Management Knowledge by Means of Systematic
Review. British Journal of Management, 14: 207-222.
Tushman, M.L. & O’Reilly, C.A. 1996. The
Ambidextrous Organization: Managing Evolutionary
and Revolutionary Change. California Management
Review, 38: 1-23.
Winterhalter, S., Zeschky, M.B., Neumann, L. &
Gassmann, O. 2017. Business Models for Frugal
Innovation in Emerging Markets: The Case of the
Medical Device and Laboratory Equipment Industry.
Technovation, 66: 3-13.
Yoo, Y. & Kim, K. 2015. How Samsung Became a Design
Powerhouse. Harvard Business Review, 93: 72-12.
Zott, C., Amit, R. & Massa, L. 2011. The Business Model:
Recent Developments and Future Research. Journal
of Management, 37: 1019-1042.
Understanding the Strategy-Innovation Link in an Era of Disruptions
Karl Joachim Breunig & Tale Skjølsvik

Don't use plagiarized sources. Get Your Custom Essay on
Management theory to highlight similarities
Just from $10/Page
Order Essay

Get Professional Assignment Help Cheaply

Buy Custom Essay

Are you busy and do not have time to handle your assignment? Are you scared that your paper will not make the grade? Do you have responsibilities that may hinder you from turning in your assignment on time? Are you tired and can barely handle your assignment? Are your grades inconsistent?

Whichever your reason is, it is valid! You can get professional academic help from our service at affordable rates. We have a team of professional academic writers who can handle all your assignments.

Why Choose Our Academic Writing Service?

  • Plagiarism free papers
  • Timely delivery
  • Any deadline
  • Skilled, Experienced Native English Writers
  • Subject-relevant academic writer
  • Adherence to paper instructions
  • Ability to tackle bulk assignments
  • Reasonable prices
  • 24/7 Customer Support
  • Get superb grades consistently

Online Academic Help With Different Subjects

Literature

Students barely have time to read. We got you! Have your literature essay or book review written without having the hassle of reading the book. You can get your literature paper custom-written for you by our literature specialists.

Finance

Do you struggle with finance? No need to torture yourself if finance is not your cup of tea. You can order your finance paper from our academic writing service and get 100% original work from competent finance experts.

Computer science

Computer science is a tough subject. Fortunately, our computer science experts are up to the match. No need to stress and have sleepless nights. Our academic writers will tackle all your computer science assignments and deliver them on time. Let us handle all your python, java, ruby, JavaScript, php , C+ assignments!

Psychology

While psychology may be an interesting subject, you may lack sufficient time to handle your assignments. Don’t despair; by using our academic writing service, you can be assured of perfect grades. Moreover, your grades will be consistent.

Engineering

Engineering is quite a demanding subject. Students face a lot of pressure and barely have enough time to do what they love to do. Our academic writing service got you covered! Our engineering specialists follow the paper instructions and ensure timely delivery of the paper.

Nursing

In the nursing course, you may have difficulties with literature reviews, annotated bibliographies, critical essays, and other assignments. Our nursing assignment writers will offer you professional nursing paper help at low prices.

Sociology

Truth be told, sociology papers can be quite exhausting. Our academic writing service relieves you of fatigue, pressure, and stress. You can relax and have peace of mind as our academic writers handle your sociology assignment.

Business

We take pride in having some of the best business writers in the industry. Our business writers have a lot of experience in the field. They are reliable, and you can be assured of a high-grade paper. They are able to handle business papers of any subject, length, deadline, and difficulty!

Statistics

We boast of having some of the most experienced statistics experts in the industry. Our statistics experts have diverse skills, expertise, and knowledge to handle any kind of assignment. They have access to all kinds of software to get your assignment done.

Law

Writing a law essay may prove to be an insurmountable obstacle, especially when you need to know the peculiarities of the legislative framework. Take advantage of our top-notch law specialists and get superb grades and 100% satisfaction.

What discipline/subjects do you deal in?

We have highlighted some of the most popular subjects we handle above. Those are just a tip of the iceberg. We deal in all academic disciplines since our writers are as diverse. They have been drawn from across all disciplines, and orders are assigned to those writers believed to be the best in the field. In a nutshell, there is no task we cannot handle; all you need to do is place your order with us. As long as your instructions are clear, just trust we shall deliver irrespective of the discipline.

Are your writers competent enough to handle my paper?

Our essay writers are graduates with bachelor's, masters, Ph.D., and doctorate degrees in various subjects. The minimum requirement to be an essay writer with our essay writing service is to have a college degree. All our academic writers have a minimum of two years of academic writing. We have a stringent recruitment process to ensure that we get only the most competent essay writers in the industry. We also ensure that the writers are handsomely compensated for their value. The majority of our writers are native English speakers. As such, the fluency of language and grammar is impeccable.

What if I don’t like the paper?

There is a very low likelihood that you won’t like the paper.

Reasons being:

  • When assigning your order, we match the paper’s discipline with the writer’s field/specialization. Since all our writers are graduates, we match the paper’s subject with the field the writer studied. For instance, if it’s a nursing paper, only a nursing graduate and writer will handle it. Furthermore, all our writers have academic writing experience and top-notch research skills.
  • We have a quality assurance that reviews the paper before it gets to you. As such, we ensure that you get a paper that meets the required standard and will most definitely make the grade.

In the event that you don’t like your paper:

  • The writer will revise the paper up to your pleasing. You have unlimited revisions. You simply need to highlight what specifically you don’t like about the paper, and the writer will make the amendments. The paper will be revised until you are satisfied. Revisions are free of charge
  • We will have a different writer write the paper from scratch.
  • Last resort, if the above does not work, we will refund your money.

Will the professor find out I didn’t write the paper myself?

Not at all. All papers are written from scratch. There is no way your tutor or instructor will realize that you did not write the paper yourself. In fact, we recommend using our assignment help services for consistent results.

What if the paper is plagiarized?

We check all papers for plagiarism before we submit them. We use powerful plagiarism checking software such as SafeAssign, LopesWrite, and Turnitin. We also upload the plagiarism report so that you can review it. We understand that plagiarism is academic suicide. We would not take the risk of submitting plagiarized work and jeopardize your academic journey. Furthermore, we do not sell or use prewritten papers, and each paper is written from scratch.

When will I get my paper?

You determine when you get the paper by setting the deadline when placing the order. All papers are delivered within the deadline. We are well aware that we operate in a time-sensitive industry. As such, we have laid out strategies to ensure that the client receives the paper on time and they never miss the deadline. We understand that papers that are submitted late have some points deducted. We do not want you to miss any points due to late submission. We work on beating deadlines by huge margins in order to ensure that you have ample time to review the paper before you submit it.

Will anyone find out that I used your services?

We have a privacy and confidentiality policy that guides our work. We NEVER share any customer information with third parties. Noone will ever know that you used our assignment help services. It’s only between you and us. We are bound by our policies to protect the customer’s identity and information. All your information, such as your names, phone number, email, order information, and so on, are protected. We have robust security systems that ensure that your data is protected. Hacking our systems is close to impossible, and it has never happened.

How our Assignment Help Service Works

1. Place an order

You fill all the paper instructions in the order form. Make sure you include all the helpful materials so that our academic writers can deliver the perfect paper. It will also help to eliminate unnecessary revisions.

2. Pay for the order

Proceed to pay for the paper so that it can be assigned to one of our expert academic writers. The paper subject is matched with the writer’s area of specialization.

3. Track the progress

You communicate with the writer and know about the progress of the paper. The client can ask the writer for drafts of the paper. The client can upload extra material and include additional instructions from the lecturer. Receive a paper.

4. Download the paper

The paper is sent to your email and uploaded to your personal account. You also get a plagiarism report attached to your paper.

smile and order essay GET A PERFECT SCORE!!! smile and order essay Buy Custom Essay