Proposed Methodology for Cyber Criminal Profiling

8/18/2021 Proposed Methodology for Cyber Criminal Profiling: EBSCOhost… 1/10
Document Type:
Subject Terms:
Author Affiliations:
Proposed Methodology for Cyber Criminal
Warikoo, Arun (AUTHOR) [email protected]
Information Security Journal: A Global Perspective. 2014, Vol. 23 Issue 4-6, p172-178.
*CRIMINAL profiling
*CRIMINAL justice system
*CRIMINAL investigation
cyber attacks
cyber criminal profiling
profiling framework
922190 Other Justice, Public Order, and Safety Activities
Criminal profiling is an important tool employed by law enforcement agencies in their
investigations. Criminal profiling is much more than an educated guess; it requires a
scientific-based methodology. Cyber crimes are occurring at an alarming rate globally.
Law enforcement agencies follow similar techniques to traditional crimes. As is the case
in traditional criminal investigation, cyber criminal profiling is a key component in cyber
crime investigations as well. This paper examines cyber criminal profiling techniques
prevalent today, including inductive and deductive profiling, and the need for employing a
hybrid technique that incorporates both inductive and deductive profiling. This paper
proposes a cyber criminal profiling methodology based on the hybrid technique. Criminal
behavior and characteristics are identified by analyzing the data against a predefined set
Copyright of Information Security Journal: A Global Perspective is the property of Taylor &
Francis Ltd and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a
listserv without the copyright holder’s express written permission. However, users may
print, download, or email articles for individual use. This abstract may be abridged. No
warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original
published version of the material for the full abstract. (Copyright applies to all Abstracts.)
Jersey City, New Jersey, USA
8/18/2021 Proposed Methodology for Cyber Criminal Profiling: EBSCOhost… 2/10
Accession Number:
Publisher Logo:
Proposed Methodology for Cyber Criminal
Criminal profiling is an important tool employed by law enforcement agencies in their investigations.
Criminal profiling is much more than an educated guess; it requires a scientific-based methodology.
Cyber crimes are occurring at an alarming rate globally. Law enforcement agencies follow similar
techniques to traditional crimes. As is the case in traditional criminal investigation, cyber criminal
profiling is a key component in cyber crime investigations as well. This paper examines cyber criminal
profiling techniques prevalent today, including inductive and deductive profiling, and the need for
employing a hybrid technique that incorporates both inductive and deductive profiling. This paper
proposes a cyber criminal profiling methodology based on the hybrid technique. Criminal behavior and
characteristics are identified by analyzing the data against a predefined set of metrics.
Keywords: cyber attacks; cyber criminal profiling; forensics; profiling framework
The growing reliance on the cyber space among government institutions and businesses alike has led to
a tremendous surge in cybercrimes. The Internet Crime Reports published yearly by the Internet Crime
Complaint Center (IC3) is testimony to the menace of cybercrime. IC3 received 289,874 consumer
complaints with an adjusted dollar loss of $525,441,1101, an 8.3% increase in reported losses since
2011 (Annual Report, [ 1]).
Before we dig deeper into cyber crime profiling, it is important to understand what cyber crime is. There
is no official meaning of cyber crime written in any dictionary. Cyber crime is a subgroup of computer
crime (Shinder & Tittel, [13]). Computer crime, as per the U.S. Department of Justice (DOJ), is defined
as “any violation of criminal law that involves the knowledge of computer technology for its perpetration,
investigation or prosecution” (Shinder et al., [13]). There are varying definitions on cyber crime as
described by legislators and organizations. The United Nations (UN) defines cyber crime as “any illegal
behavior committed by means of, or in relation to, a computer system or network, including such crimes
as illegal possession of and offering or distributing information by means of a computer system or
network” (Shinder et al.,
 Listen 
8/18/2021 Proposed Methodology for Cyber Criminal Profiling: EBSCOhost… 3/10
[13]). Symantec (n.d.) defines cyber crime as “any crime that is committed using a computer or network,
or hardware device. The computer or device may be the agent of the crime, the facilitator of the crime,
or the target of the crime.”
There is a motive behind every crime, and cyber crimes are no different. Cyber crimes are performed for
the various motives such as financial gain, intellectual property (IP) theft, espionage, terrorism, and for
thrill. A UN study (Malby et al., [10]) on cyber crime states that “upwards of 80% of cybercrime acts are
estimated to originate in some form of organized activity, with cybercrime black markets established on
a cycle of malware creation, computer infection, botnet management, harvesting of personal and
financial data, data sale, and ‘cashing out’ of financial information.”
Criminal profiling is a key tool available to investigators used to narrow the range of suspects and
evaluate the likelihood of a suspect committing a crime. Criminal profiling is a scientific technique to
assess and analyze the scene of a crime and deduce behavioral characteristics of the individual
committing the crime (Kirwan & Power, [ 8]). A profile consists of a set of characteristics likely to be
shared by criminals who commit a particular type of crime (Shinder et al., [13]). Profiling methods are
based on two assumptions (Kirwan et al., [ 8]) that are as follows:
consistency assumption, based on the premise that an offender will exhibit similar behavior
throughout all their crimes; and
homology assumption, based on the premise that similar offense styles have to be associated with
similar offender background characteristics.
Two types of criminal profiling methods are prevalent today. These are inductive profiling and deductive
Inductive profiling method (Figure 1) employs a database that contains extensive data on criminals
committing a type of crime. The profiler analyzes the data, establishes correlations, and deduces the
characteristics common to statistically large number of offenders committing a specific type of crime
(Shinder et al., [13]).
Graph: FIGURE 1 Inductive profiling methodology.
Deductive profiling (Figure 2) involves analysis of forensic evidence and victim profiling to determine the
motive and attacker characteristics (Tennakoon, [15]). The profiler analyzes the forensic evidence,
employs the principles of victimology, and utilizes his/or her experience to deduce criminal
characteristics (Shinder et al., [13]).
8/18/2021 Proposed Methodology for Cyber Criminal Profiling: EBSCOhost… 4/10
Graph: FIGURE 2 Deductive profiling methodology.
Criminal profiling plays a key role in investigations. This paper uses the definition provided in
“Examination of Cyber-criminal Behavior” (Jahankhani & Al-Nemrat, [ 7]), which is as follows: “An
educated attempt to provide specific information as to the type of individual who committed a certain
crime. A profile based on characteristics patterns or factors of uniqueness that distinguishes certain
individuals from the general population.”
As is the case with a crime, cyber criminal profiling must be used as a tool for cyber crime
investigations. Cyber criminal profiling is effective as a law enforcement tool only when a standard
methodology is used in developing profiles and is not based on an educated guess.
Cyber criminal profiling is garnering tremendous attention due to the rise in cyber crimes. Although it is
similar to traditional criminal profiling, it presents numerous challenges to investigators. The perpetrators
of the crime are remote and may be residing on different continents (Jahankhani et al., [ 7]). An
interdisciplinary approach is required that applies not only psychology, criminology, and law but also a
technological understanding on the subject of cyber crime (Tennakoon, [15]).
Profiling is still based on educated guesses wherein investigators try to identify patterns by comparing
with recorded cyber crimes that may lead to results that are inaccurate. Without a proper use of a
scientific methodology and empirical analysis, profilers may come to different conclusions and
recommendations (Broucek & Turner, [ 4]). Therefore, a standard methodology is required for cyber
criminal profiling to be a credible and effective tool for law enforcement agencies.
Forensic psychology offender profiling techniques are being used in cyber crime investigations as well.
Inductive profiling involves a statistical analysis and is a method frequently used by the Federal Bureau
of Investigation (Jahankhani et al., [ 7]). The inductive profiling method utilizes data mining techniques to
develop models for pattern detection and involves the examination of data to identify patterns that match
known fraud profiles (Wheelbarger, [18]).
Much academic work has been done on building a database of cyber criminal profiles. One of the
projects known as the Hackers Profiling Project revolved around building a huge database on existing
hacker profiles that included demographics, socioeconomic background, social relationships, and
psychological traits (Kirwan et al., [ 8]). However, profiling was based on data obtained from selfreporting questionnaires rather than hacker activities and offenses (Kirwan et al., [ 8]). Donato ([ 5]) in
his paper on criminal profiling proposes a methodology on how to use criminal profiling to improve digital
forensics and cybercrime investigations. Donato’s methodology focuses on finding the capability of the
attacker in terms of skill level and deducing psychological characteristics on basis of the evidence
8/18/2021 Proposed Methodology for Cyber Criminal Profiling: EBSCOhost… 5/10
(Kirwan et al., [ 8]). Donato’s methodology does not look at empirical analysis to establish patterns, nor
does it look at demographic characteristics of previous offenders (Kirwan et al., [ 8]).
In the cyber world, technology keeps on changing and hackers develop and employ new techniques
known as zero day attacks. Their behavior is dynamic and may change over time with the acquisition of
new skills (Jahankhani et al., [ 7]). The other issue is that the data are based on generalizations, and the
sampling leaves out a dataset of skillful people who avoid detection over a period of time, thereby
introducing inaccuracies in the results (Benny, [ 3]). Therefore, relying on inductive profiling only is not
suitable for cyber criminal profiling. On the other hand, relying just on deductive profiling will leave
investigators oblivious to the current trends such as popular attack methods, likely targets and victims
(Tennakoon, [15]). Therefore, a hybrid methodology must be employed for cyber criminal profiling.
The proposed methodology is based on a hybrid profiling model wherein the initial processes are
deductive in nature and statistical analysis is performed to identify common patterns and characteristics.
Digital forensics data can provide vital clues about the attacker such as sophistication of attack,
motivation, tools used, and vulnerabilities exposed (Kwan, Ray, & Stephens, [ 9]). Cyber criminals, like
traditional offenders, have their modus operandi that they tend to repeat at each crime (Shinder et al.,
The proposed methodology employs six Profile Identification Metrics to determine the offender’s modus
operandi, psychology, and behavior characteristics:
Attack Signature. This refers to the tools that were used for the attack. Analysis of the digital
forensic evidence will provide information on the nature of attack signature. For example, if forensic
evidence points to a zero day attack, it implies that a customized code was created for the attack. On
the other hand, attacks that expose known vulnerabilities employ ready to use tools or known codes.
Attack Method. This refers to the method used for the attack. Social engineering, malware,
distributed denial of service (DDoS), spamming, and phishing are some of the common attack
methods employed by the cybercriminals.
Motivation Level. Motivation level is a key metric in identifying cyber criminal behavior. Motivation
Level can be determined by the complexity of the attack, and the complexity of an attack can be
determined by employing the vulnerability tree methodology (Vidalis & Jones, [17]). An attack with
high level of complexity were an attacker has to exploit multiple layers of vulnerabilities implicitly
implies an attacker with a high motivation level. Such attackers are risk takers and persistent in their
attack. An attacker with medium level motivation conducts attacks that are not continuous. An attack
with high level of complexity indicates an attacker with low level motivation is risk averse and
8/18/2021 Proposed Methodology for Cyber Criminal Profiling: EBSCOhost… 6/10
Capability Factor. Capability factor is another important metric useful in identifying characteristics
and is defined in terms of the availability of hacking tools, the ability to use those tools and
techniques, and the level of resources at the attacker’s disposal. Script kiddies are attackers with
basic skill level and use freely available tools. An attacker with intermediate skills uses freely
available tools or purchases malware to conduct attacks and has a handle on the tools used. An
advanced level attacker is an expert in developing customized codes for zero day exploits.
Attack Severity. Attack severity is defined in terms of the impact the threat has on the enterprise.
The severity of an attack is classified into the following:
Low: no tangible to the enterprise;
Medium: there is moderate disruption to the enterprise;
Major: major breach that can have a major business impact; and
Critical: the enterprise goes out of business the moment the threat is realized.
Demographics. Geographic location is a critical metric in profile identification. Existing profiling
methods do not look at geographic locations for profile building, which is a key indicator in identifying
characteristics of cyber crimes (Tompsett, Marshall, & Semmens, [16]). It is well documented that the
majority of cyber crimes of a particular type originate from a certain location. For example, cyber
crimes related to espionage have been known to originate from China.
The proposed methodology is a four-step process as follows:
Process 1 or P1
The first stage (Figure 3) involves victim profiling. P1 involves identifying the various aspects of an
individual or an organization that attracted criminals (Tennakoon, [15]).
Graph: FIGURE 3 Process 1/ P1 of the proposed methodology.
Process 2 or P2
The second stage (Figure 4) involves identifying the motive behind the attack. A motive is closely
associated with a victim. For example, an attack on government implies that the motive is espionage.
This stage also involves analyzing the digital forensic evidence to deduce possible characteristics.
Graph: FIGURE 4 Process 2/ P2 of the proposed methodology.
Process 3 or P3
8/18/2021 Proposed Methodology for Cyber Criminal Profiling: EBSCOhost… 7/10
This stage involves an empirical analysis on the data and an identification of trends by conducting a
statistical analysis (Figure 5). Criminal behavior and characteristics are identified by analyzing the data
against the above mentioned metrics.
TABLE 1 Cyber Criminal Profiles
Motive Structure Motivation
Skill Level Attack
Attack Method
Novice Fun Thrill Unorganized Low Basic Low to
Freely available tools
Hacktivists Political
Unorganized High Basic to
Low to
Phishing, Spamming,
Unorganized with some
level of collaboration
Medium Intermediate Medium
to High
Spamming, Malware
Cyber Crime
Organized Well Funded High Intermediate
to Advanced
High Malware available in the
underground market
Cyber Spies Espionage
IP Theft
State Sponsored Highly
Organized Well Funded
High Highly
Critical Customized codes, zero
day attacks
Disruption Well Funded Work in small
Medium Basic to
Low to
Graph: FIGURE 5 Process 3/ P3 of the proposed methodology.
Process 4 or P4
This is the final stage and involves building cyber criminal profiles from the characteristics that have
been identified. For example, an extremely skillful attacker that employs zero day exploits to target
defense institutions to extract sensitive information falls under the cyber spy bucket.
Cyber criminals are classified into six profiles (see Table 1).
Hacktivists are politically motivated and target governments, news groups, and companies doing
business with governments. Their motive for hacking is to get their political message across. Most
hacktivist groups are not organized and rely on freely available tools with the intention of conveying their
political message (Nachreiner, [11]). Their skill level can vary from basic to intermediate.
Cyber Criminals
Cyber criminals are driven by financial gains and target consumers and businesses. They are not
organized and their skill level ranges from basic to intermediate.
Cyber Syndicates
8/18/2021 Proposed Methodology for Cyber Criminal Profiling: EBSCOhost… 8/10
They are highly organized, well-funded, and headed by crime organizations. They are responsible for
stealing billions of dollars from consumers and businesses each year and also buy and sell the private
information and intellectual property and trade attack toolkits, zero day exploit code, malware code
(Nachreiner, [11]).
Cyber Spies
Cyber spies are state sponsored and very well-funded. Their motive is espionage and IP theft. They
target government organizations and business dealing with governments to extract sensitive
information. They are highly advanced and create customized codes incorporating previously
undiscovered software vulnerabilities (Nachreiner, [11]). They often leverage the most advanced attack
and evasion techniques into their attack, using kernel level rootkits, stenography, and encryption to
avoid detection (Nachreiner).
This class of hackers has basic skill level and relies on freely available hacking tools. They do this for
fun and entertainment.
Cyber Terrorists
This group is well funded, organized, and engage in hacktivism as well as criminal activity (Bednarz, [
The cyber criminal profiling methodology, as illustrated in Figure 6, must be an interactive process for
accuracy and effectiveness. Investigations are iterative in nature. Initial investigations reveal basic
details. As the investigations moves from basic to advanced stages, more and more information on the
victim is collected, which may help in identifying additional motives that were missed in the initial
investigation. Additional evidence may also be collected providing more data for profile characterization.
Graph: FIGURE 6 Iterative Process.
Cyber criminal profiling must be based on a scientific process. A standard profiling methodology is
required for accuracy, reliability, and effectiveness. The cyber criminal profiling methodology proposed in
this paper is based on a hybrid profiling model that involves both inductive as well as deductive profiling.
This methodology needs to be tested by simulating different scenarios in a lab setting.
1 Color versions of one or more of the figures in the article can be found online at
8/18/2021 Proposed Methodology for Cyber Criminal Profiling: EBSCOhost… 9/10
Annual Report. (2012). Internet Crime Report. Internet Crime Complaint Center (IC3) , p. 4.
2 Bednarz , A. (2004). Profiling cybercriminals: A promising but immature science. Networkworld.
Retrieved from
3 Benny , D (2007). The uses of inductive and deductive reasoning in investigations and criminal
profiling. BECCA Report , pp. 7 – 9.
4 Broucek , V. , and Turner , P. (2006). Winning the battles , losing the war? Rethinking methodology for
forensic computing research. Journal in Computer Virology , 3 – 12.
5 Donato , L. (2009). An introduction to how criminal profiling could be used as a support for computer
hacking investigations. Journal of Digital Forensic Practice , 2 , 183 – 195.
6 Drummond , D. (2010). A new approach to China. Google Blog. Retrieved from
7 Jahankhani , H. , and Al-Nemrat , A. (2010). Examination of cyber-criminal behavior. International
Journal of Information Science and Management , 41 – 48.
8 Kirwan , G. , and Power , A. (2011). The psychology of cyber crime , 1st edition. IGI Global.
9 Kwan , L. , Ray , P. , and Stephens , G. (2008). Towards a methodology for profiling cyber criminals.
IEEE Computer Society. Proceedings of the 41st Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences ,
pp. 3 – 5.
Malby , S. , Mace , R. , Holterhof , A. , Brown , C. , Kascherus , S. , and Ignatuschtschenko , E. (2013).
Comprehensive study on cybercrime. United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime , pp. 38 – 39
Nachreiner , C. (2013). Profiling modern hacktivists, criminals and cyber spies. Watchguard Security
Center. Retrieved from
Shinder , D. (2010). Profiling and categorizing cybercriminals. TechRepublic. Retrieved from
Shinder , D. , and Tittel , E. (2002.) Scene of the cybercrime – computer forensics handbook , 1st
edition. Syngress Publishing.
Symantec. (n.d.). What is cybercrime? Symantec. Retrieved from
8/18/2021 Proposed Methodology for Cyber Criminal Profiling: EBSCOhost… 10/10
Tennakoon , H (2011). The need for a comprehensive methodology for profiling cyber-criminals. New
Security Learning. Retrieved
Tompsett , B. C. , Marshall , A. M. , and Semmens , N. C. (2005). Cybrprofiling: Offender profiling and
geographic profiling of crime on the Internet. Computer Network Forensics Research Workshop , p. 1.
Vidalis , S. and Jones , A. (2003). Using vulnerability trees for decision making in threat assessment.
School of Computing Technical Report CS-03-2, School of Computing , University of Glamorgan , pp. 5
– 8.
Wheelbarger , S (2009). CyberForensics. Criminal justice collaboratory. Colby Community College.
Retrieved from
By Arun Warikoo
Reported by Author
Arun Warikoo is a security solutions specialist. He has worked extensively in the private sectors to
improve the security of their critical information systems. His research focuses on improving the
governance around security and developing frameworks on cyber security.
Copyright of Information Security Journal: A Global Perspective is the property of Taylor & Francis Ltd
and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the
copyright holder’s express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for
individual use.
EBSCO Connect Privacy Policy A/B Testing Terms of Use Copyright
Cookie Policy
powered by EBSCOhost
© 2021 EBSCO Industries, Inc. All rights reserved.

Get Professional Assignment Help Cheaply

Buy Custom Essay

Don't use plagiarized sources. Get Your Custom Essay on
Proposed Methodology for Cyber Criminal Profiling
Just from $10/Page
Order Essay

Are you busy and do not have time to handle your assignment? Are you scared that your paper will not make the grade? Do you have responsibilities that may hinder you from turning in your assignment on time? Are you tired and can barely handle your assignment? Are your grades inconsistent?

Whichever your reason is, it is valid! You can get professional academic help from our service at affordable rates. We have a team of professional academic writers who can handle all your assignments.

Why Choose Our Academic Writing Service?

  • Plagiarism free papers
  • Timely delivery
  • Any deadline
  • Skilled, Experienced Native English Writers
  • Subject-relevant academic writer
  • Adherence to paper instructions
  • Ability to tackle bulk assignments
  • Reasonable prices
  • 24/7 Customer Support
  • Get superb grades consistently

Online Academic Help With Different Subjects


Students barely have time to read. We got you! Have your literature essay or book review written without having the hassle of reading the book. You can get your literature paper custom-written for you by our literature specialists.


Do you struggle with finance? No need to torture yourself if finance is not your cup of tea. You can order your finance paper from our academic writing service and get 100% original work from competent finance experts.

Computer science

Computer science is a tough subject. Fortunately, our computer science experts are up to the match. No need to stress and have sleepless nights. Our academic writers will tackle all your computer science assignments and deliver them on time. Let us handle all your python, java, ruby, JavaScript, php , C+ assignments!


While psychology may be an interesting subject, you may lack sufficient time to handle your assignments. Don’t despair; by using our academic writing service, you can be assured of perfect grades. Moreover, your grades will be consistent.


Engineering is quite a demanding subject. Students face a lot of pressure and barely have enough time to do what they love to do. Our academic writing service got you covered! Our engineering specialists follow the paper instructions and ensure timely delivery of the paper.


In the nursing course, you may have difficulties with literature reviews, annotated bibliographies, critical essays, and other assignments. Our nursing assignment writers will offer you professional nursing paper help at low prices.


Truth be told, sociology papers can be quite exhausting. Our academic writing service relieves you of fatigue, pressure, and stress. You can relax and have peace of mind as our academic writers handle your sociology assignment.


We take pride in having some of the best business writers in the industry. Our business writers have a lot of experience in the field. They are reliable, and you can be assured of a high-grade paper. They are able to handle business papers of any subject, length, deadline, and difficulty!


We boast of having some of the most experienced statistics experts in the industry. Our statistics experts have diverse skills, expertise, and knowledge to handle any kind of assignment. They have access to all kinds of software to get your assignment done.


Writing a law essay may prove to be an insurmountable obstacle, especially when you need to know the peculiarities of the legislative framework. Take advantage of our top-notch law specialists and get superb grades and 100% satisfaction.

What discipline/subjects do you deal in?

We have highlighted some of the most popular subjects we handle above. Those are just a tip of the iceberg. We deal in all academic disciplines since our writers are as diverse. They have been drawn from across all disciplines, and orders are assigned to those writers believed to be the best in the field. In a nutshell, there is no task we cannot handle; all you need to do is place your order with us. As long as your instructions are clear, just trust we shall deliver irrespective of the discipline.

Are your writers competent enough to handle my paper?

Our essay writers are graduates with bachelor's, masters, Ph.D., and doctorate degrees in various subjects. The minimum requirement to be an essay writer with our essay writing service is to have a college degree. All our academic writers have a minimum of two years of academic writing. We have a stringent recruitment process to ensure that we get only the most competent essay writers in the industry. We also ensure that the writers are handsomely compensated for their value. The majority of our writers are native English speakers. As such, the fluency of language and grammar is impeccable.

What if I don’t like the paper?

There is a very low likelihood that you won’t like the paper.

Reasons being:

  • When assigning your order, we match the paper’s discipline with the writer’s field/specialization. Since all our writers are graduates, we match the paper’s subject with the field the writer studied. For instance, if it’s a nursing paper, only a nursing graduate and writer will handle it. Furthermore, all our writers have academic writing experience and top-notch research skills.
  • We have a quality assurance that reviews the paper before it gets to you. As such, we ensure that you get a paper that meets the required standard and will most definitely make the grade.

In the event that you don’t like your paper:

  • The writer will revise the paper up to your pleasing. You have unlimited revisions. You simply need to highlight what specifically you don’t like about the paper, and the writer will make the amendments. The paper will be revised until you are satisfied. Revisions are free of charge
  • We will have a different writer write the paper from scratch.
  • Last resort, if the above does not work, we will refund your money.

Will the professor find out I didn’t write the paper myself?

Not at all. All papers are written from scratch. There is no way your tutor or instructor will realize that you did not write the paper yourself. In fact, we recommend using our assignment help services for consistent results.

What if the paper is plagiarized?

We check all papers for plagiarism before we submit them. We use powerful plagiarism checking software such as SafeAssign, LopesWrite, and Turnitin. We also upload the plagiarism report so that you can review it. We understand that plagiarism is academic suicide. We would not take the risk of submitting plagiarized work and jeopardize your academic journey. Furthermore, we do not sell or use prewritten papers, and each paper is written from scratch.

When will I get my paper?

You determine when you get the paper by setting the deadline when placing the order. All papers are delivered within the deadline. We are well aware that we operate in a time-sensitive industry. As such, we have laid out strategies to ensure that the client receives the paper on time and they never miss the deadline. We understand that papers that are submitted late have some points deducted. We do not want you to miss any points due to late submission. We work on beating deadlines by huge margins in order to ensure that you have ample time to review the paper before you submit it.

Will anyone find out that I used your services?

We have a privacy and confidentiality policy that guides our work. We NEVER share any customer information with third parties. Noone will ever know that you used our assignment help services. It’s only between you and us. We are bound by our policies to protect the customer’s identity and information. All your information, such as your names, phone number, email, order information, and so on, are protected. We have robust security systems that ensure that your data is protected. Hacking our systems is close to impossible, and it has never happened.

How our Assignment Help Service Works

1. Place an order

You fill all the paper instructions in the order form. Make sure you include all the helpful materials so that our academic writers can deliver the perfect paper. It will also help to eliminate unnecessary revisions.

2. Pay for the order

Proceed to pay for the paper so that it can be assigned to one of our expert academic writers. The paper subject is matched with the writer’s area of specialization.

3. Track the progress

You communicate with the writer and know about the progress of the paper. The client can ask the writer for drafts of the paper. The client can upload extra material and include additional instructions from the lecturer. Receive a paper.

4. Download the paper

The paper is sent to your email and uploaded to your personal account. You also get a plagiarism report attached to your paper.

smile and order essay GET A PERFECT SCORE!!! smile and order essay Buy Custom Essay