Race and Computing CSC300: Computers and Society

Race and
CSC300: Computers and Society
Image Source:
Thanks for your praises for CSC300
● We are also thankful to you for being patient at times
● We put our best in a hard time
● Please now take 5 minutes to fill out the evaluation form
Final Assessment
● Date: December 15
● Time: 2 hours (within the widow 9 am to 9 pm)
● There will two kinds of questions: Multiple Choice Questions (MCQs) and Short-answer Questions
Final Assessment
● There will be 28 MCQs. Each MCQ will have only 1 correct answer. Each MCQ values 0.5 marks.
So, total marks for MCQs = 28 x 0.5 = 14
● Each SQ needs to be answered within the textbox below the question. Maximum word limit: 300
(you can go up to 330 without penalty). Each SQ values 4 marks. So, total marks for SQs = 5 x 4 = 20
● Total Marks of the Exam: 34: MCQs (14) + SQs(20)
● We will soon share with you a couple of sample MCQs and SQs from the previous semesters.
● Learning objectives, key terms, and important conceptual orientation(s)
● What’s wrong with the current designs?
● Introduction to intersectional analysis
● Race, computing, and equity
â—‹ In education
â—‹ In the workplace
● Theoretical perspectives on rethinking “race”
â—‹ Race is constructed through social circumstances
â—‹ Race is performed in social interaction
● Examples of Race-Equitable Designs – “Critical Race Theory for HCI”
Learning Objectives
After this lecture you will:
● Have a more critical understanding of how “race” is socially constructed, and how this social
construction informs stereotypes and biases that shape learning and labor in computer science
● Gain a deeper understanding of how race informs various structural, educational, and
representational biases and prejudices in computer science (labour, technology, etc.)
● Have a better comprehension of social injustice as it pertains to inequities of “race” and computing
● Be able to consider possible interventions and use applied knowledge to solve problems of
inequality vis-a-vis “racial” representation, using a variety of practical and theoretical tools
KEY CONCEPT: Race/ “Race” is Socially Constructed
● In Canada and much of the world, “race” is used to refer to any combination of skin color, ancestry, religion,
ethnicity, so on. It is a very open and ambiguous category
○ E.g., Jewish people → religion as “race”
○ E.g., People with typically African features → “Black” → color as “race”
● We use the term “race” as shorthand to categorize people. The logics for this categorization are often
incoherent; i.e., the standards for what defines “race” are very shifty
● The vast majority of historians, biologists, anthropologists, and other scholars of humanity and genetic
evolution believe that “race” is a social construct – i.e., race is defined and made visible or relevant by social
conditions, and is often ‘performed’ through stereotypes, etc.
What’s wrong with these
current designs?
What’s wrong with the current designs?
Microsoft’s Tay, an AI “teenage” chatbot that
learned from interactions. Within 24 hours
of being exposed to the public, Tay took on a
racist, sexist, homophobic personality and
had to be taken for an indefinite time-out.
Image Source:
What’s wrong with the current designs?
Microsoft’s Tay, an AI “teenage” chatbot that
learned from interactions. Within 24 hours
of being exposed to the public, Tay took on a
racist, sexist, homophobic personality and
had to be taken for an indefinite time-out.
Image Source:
What’s wrong with the current designs?
Image Source:
https://c.files.bbci.co.uk/BC13/production/_83974184_29ba8607-9446-4298-9d9e-d33514811487.jpg Source: https://www.theguardian.com/technology/2018/jan/12/google-racism-ban-gorilla-black-people
What’s wrong with the current designs?
HP Cameras are racist!
Source: https://techcrunch.com/2009/12/19/hp-webcams-are-racist/
What’s wrong with the current designs?
What’s wrong with the current designs?
Lack of racial representations in video games
Light skin tones are seen as the default skin color for
many games!
In 2015, Pew Research Center found that 35% of blacks,
36% of Hispanics, and 24% of whites surveyed believe
that minorities are portrayed poorly in video games.
Source: https://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2015/12/17/views-on-gaming-differ-by-race-ethnicity/
What’s wrong with the current designs?
What’s wrong with the current designs?
The study analyzed health records for
57,000 people with chronic kidney disease
from the Mass General Brigham health
system. 1/3 of Black patients, more than
700 people, would have been placed into
a more severe category of kidney disease
if their kidney function had been
estimated using the same formula as for
white patients.
Discussion: Breakout Rooms
● How can we make computer algorithms less racist?
â—‹ What are wrong with the current system?
â—‹ What can we do to make it better?
Race, computing, and equity
Race Disparity in Computing: Workforce
Race Disparity in Computing: Education Gap
Race Disparity in Computing: Education Gap
Gender Disparity in Computing: Education Gap
Source: https://www.nsf.gov/nsb/sei/edTool/data/college-11.html
Google exploreCSR
Link: https://research.google/outreach/explore-csr/
● Prof. Ahmed from UofT has been awarded this year (for the first time for UofT)
● Profs. Ishtiaque Ahmed and Sadia Sharmin lead the initiative for the second-year students of DCS
● https://www.cs.toronto.edu/~rgrosse/courses/prism_2021/
Gender Disparity: The Pay Gap
Source: https://www.investopedia.com/wage-gaps-by-race-5073258
Race Disparity: The Opportunity Gap
Source: https://www.investopedia.com/wage-gaps-by-race-5073258
Discussion: Breakout Room
● How to increase diversity in North American workplaces, especially those related to computer
â—‹ What are the challenges?
â—‹ How to overcome those challenges?
Intersectional approaches
to race and gender
Understanding “intersectionality”
Kimberle Crenshaw
Intersectionality: a term coined by legal scholar K. Crenshaw in
1989, and introduced in a famous paper given to the Chicago Legal
Thesis: categories of identity (in this case, race and gender) and
related forms oppression cannot be understood or addressed
separately. Society and the law must understand that race and
gender (e.g.) do not impact people independently from one
another. Rather, they interact or intersect, and most often enforce
each other.
Link to excellent interview with
Crenshaw re: intersectionality –
Using an intersectional approach to understand
in/equality and privilege on three larger levels…
1. Structural in/equality and privilege
2. Political in/equality and privilege
3. Representational in/equality and privilege
Understanding “intersectionality”
Kimberle Crenshaw
1. Structural in/equality and privilege
When social structures shape the experiences of individuals by favoring some
components of their identity while ignoring others.
● Economically-disadvantaged women may experience difficulty accessing counselling
services and resources, as these have been allocated according to the needs of
economically privileged women.
● Counselling services for domestic abuse survivors may be in neighbourhoods that are
very difficult to access by public transit, or may be only held at times that serve women
who work 9-5 jobs and are therefore not accessible to women who do shift work.
2. Political in/equality and privilege
When some components of identity, and not others, are favored in political strategy and agenda.
● The interests of women of color may be marginalized in favor of what are considered to be
the interests of their ‘community’ as a whole
● Political platforms that claim to be ‘racially progressive’ may IGNORE the experiences of
women in this group.
● Example: i) Refusal of agencies to release domestic violence data by race in order to
protect communities of color; the interests of women of color were marginalized in favor of
the interests of the Black community as a whole.
3. Representational in/equality and privilege
When people or groups are portrayed and presented according to the stereotypes ascribed
to their communities/cultures.
Often, these stereotypes zero in on one aspect of identity and erase or ignore other
● Early representations of feminism as concerned with the exploitation and isolation of
the “housewife” occluded the fact that women of color and working class women are
not, on the whole, stay home wives/mothers.
Beyond gender and race:
beyond male-female and black-white
● Crenshaw paved the way for how society and the law in America recognize that experiences of
oppression or inequity cannot just be boiled down to race OR gender. However, she began her work
in 1989, when social understandings of identity were somewhat more simple than they are today.
Therefore, her early writing only accounted directly for a narrow set of prejudices/inequities: race
(black-white) and gender (male-female).
● Today, we understand that there are many other social categories and identities that shape human
● Think of some categories that make people ‘different,’ or which make life more difficult for some
people than for others…
Being “of color”…
Not just being b/Black… but being or looking
South Asian, Indigenous, Middle-Eastern,
Asian, and so on.
Beyond gender and race:
beyond male-female and black-white
Being non-male…
Not just being female, but also being trans*,
presenting or identifying as gender-neutral,
Being “on the spectrum” (having some form of
autism): forms of communicating or interacting
with peers, family, teachers, co-workers may be
considered “weird”; people may find themselves
ignored, ridiculed, punished…
Dis-ability of the body: e.g., for a wheelchair
user, it may be difficult or impossible to enter
or navigate a building
Beyond gender and race:
Being dis-abled
Dis-ability of the senses: e.g., it may be
difficult or impossible to hear the bus-driver
call your stop; to see where a set of stairs
begins or where there is a crosswalk
Dis-ability of speech, language, vocality: e.g., for someone
with a significant speech impairment, simply asking for
directions may be impossible (and the same goes for people
who do not speak the dominant language of the society they
are in)
Intellectual dis-ability: e.g., a person
with non-standard or
under-developed social, practical, or
conceptual skills will have a difficult
time expressing and advocating for
themselves, their needs, and safety…
Privilege, normativity
To go through life “un-marked” by race, sex, etc. likely means you will benefit – or have privilege – as a result
of presenting in a normative way.
Normative: what is normative is not the same as what is ‘normal.’ It is not about odds or statistics. It is
about what a society or culture takes for granted about how people should look, act, communicate, think,
An intersectional understanding of identity and power recognizes that multiple factors interact to shape
experience and therefore privilege. These include but are not limited to: gender, race, ability, migrant
status, language, income, family status, heritage/history ability, education, religion, etc.
Someone can be marginalized by one form of discrimination while experiencing privilege from another
aspect of their presentation or identity.
Privilege and oppression are not zero-sum equations!
Global Feminism(s):
How do different cultural
backgrounds shape local
expressions of feminism?
“White Women’s Feminism”: Feminism and Class
– Race, ethnicity, and religion shape how people understand the priority of feminist politics.
– Note: in much of the “First World,” privilege is linked to Whiteness.
– As such, early feminism was largely concerned with issues faced by privileged (White) women, e.g:
– The global fight for the women’s right to vote was first successful for land-owning women
($), next extended to women in majority White countries, etc.
– The global fight for equal pay and representation in the workforce is overwhelmingly related
to middle-class jobs. Where there is relatively equal pay, it is in roles that are taken up by
both men and women.
– The problem? Low-paying or informal work is often held by people of color. In these
circumstances, a (female) maid will still make less money than a (male) bricklayer.
– Where there is relative parity in pay between men and women, White women still
make relatively more than Women of Color.
⇒ Feminism today is still defined and understood in different ways for different groups, because
women in different groups will have accordingly different interests and concerns.
“White Women’s Feminism”: Feminism and Race
Factors that put White women, and “White feminism,” at a relative advantage in North America:
– White women tend to stay in school longer
– Often, fewer demands to leave school to contribute to the household from a young age
– Often, more family money to pay for higher education
– White women, if in a majority White country, are more likely to be fluent English speakers with
better written English skills
– Historically, in the United States, White family households have had fewer members: fewer people
to support = more money available to each member, and more financial opportunity for females.
– Single-parent families (lower family total income) are statistically more often led by Women
of Color (WOC)
– Note: more “free time” for White women to engage in activism
– For all these reasons, historically, White women have ended up being the major feminist
scholars/theorists and activists in North America.
Chicana (Mexican-American) Feminism in the United States
History of Chicanx* people:
– Mexico colonized by Spain in 1800s
– In mid-1800s, Mexican people organized Chicanx communities in the North, focused on
Mexican cultural history, rejecting imposition(s) of Spanish rule.
– In 1848, the United States forcefully took these parts of Mexico. Now the population is
concentrated what is the American South-West and California.
– Following a series of general movements for Chicanx culture and liberation, Chicana women
began organizing in 1960s.
Chicana women wanted to MAINTAIN concern with Chicanx cultural history, oppression, and
injustice (faced by men, women, children) while focusing on the fact that this history has affected
Chicana women, specifically, in particular ways.
A main concern: importation of Catholicism from Spain brought archetype of “Virgin,” and placed
this ideal female figure in opposition to non-Catholic Indigenous Mexican women, who then became
framed as sexually available and of ‘loose morals.’ This led to increased sexual assaults on Chicana
women. ⇒ Addressing this legacy is major concern of Chicana feminism.
The point: historical forces/oppressions shape the priorities of feminists in different cultures.
*Chicanx = a word to neutralize gendered language
(Chicano – male; Chicana – female) to refer to whole
Translation: “no saints, no
whores, just women”
Representing same-sex female relationships in
– Historically, feminist movements in India have had many internal disputes
around how to represent “lesbian” relationships, often preferring the term
“women who love women.”
– Major concern that the term “lesbian” was “too American”: it assumed
a type of activist identity/possibility
– Many Indian feminists felt that the “activist identity” linked to the
term “Lesbian” was not necessarily a priority for many Indian women,
who might prefer to prioritize aspects of religion or national unity
over sexual identity.
– Over time, the term lesbian has entered Indian public culture, but some
groups of feminists still reject it.
– The point: there is not one single, universal language for feminism or
equity. Different global cultures have different priorities for how they
think and talk about feminist concerns, like sexual orientation.
Read more:
and Lesbian and What Came
Next: Affect,
Commensuration, and Queer
Emergences.” American
Ethnologist 38, no. 4 (2011):
Saba Mahmood’s discussion of Islamic
Feminism in Cairo, Egypt
Over several years in the 1990s, Anthropologist Saba Mahmood studied a small womens’ mosque movement in Cairo,
Whereas many non-Muslim or secular (non-religious) people in the West think of Islamic womens’ veiling as a form of
oppression because it falls under a deeply “patriarchal”* system of power, these women demonstrated the opposite.
Mahmood learned that for these women, veiling was not an expression of oppression, but was in fact a conscientious
form of feminism. For these women, feminism included taking pride in their religious/social traditions. For these women,
veiling is a source of serenity, and provides a deep and meaningful sense of belonging; it is not a forced oppression or a
demand that they display religious virtue as defined by men.
The point: feminism does not always mean “resistance”. Feminism is not necessarily based on a rejection of rules or laws
determined by people in positions of power/privilege. Further, we must be careful not to label women who conform to
gendered traditions as “victims” in need of “saving” by way of [Western] feminism.
* Patriarchy: a term for a society in which men hold power and women are excluded from power and/or must be
subordinate to the ruling of men.
Race: socially constructed?
Socially performed?
Race and biology
The large majority of biological scientists and historians agree that “race” cannot be
established at the molecular level, and that there is often more genetic diversity WITHIN
“races” than between them.
So what do we mean when we talk about race?
Race is a concept shaped by structural, cultural
– As mentioned: “race” is a term used for easy categorization, and it often ignores many internal
– Can membership in a certain race be compromised or changed based on factors of religion, exact skin
tone, combinations of facial features, languages spoken, class level, education level…?
– YES!! (see on…)
– Often, we categorize people by “race” through terms that happen to be socially and culturally relevant
– In Canada, we think of White and Black as races based on skin color. Why would it be important to use
such simplified ways of thinking to categorize such diverse groups of people?
– Because concepts of “race” are often employed to highlight and emphasize DIFFERENCE, or
– Hence, physical features, education level, language, etc. can challenge ideas of “race” by revealing
the ways in which some racial categories depend on stereotypes and narrow criteria.
– When members of this “racial group” have affinities, interests, characteristics (etc) outside of these
narrow criteria, we realize how concepts of race rely on (unequal) social expectations for different
Is race “performed”?
– Recall Judith Butler, who argued that gender is not solely an outcome of biological sex, but is greatly shaped
by learned behaviors – different for boys than for girls; different for men than for women. These behaviors
are performed (enacted) over time. The consequence is that we make such a strong association between
biological sex and gendered behavior, that we mistake one for the other.
– A similar point can be made for “race”
– Previous slide: “race” is often understood through stereotypes and expected behaviors.
– The repetitive ‘performance’ of these behaviors may lead people to think that these behaviors are
biologically-determined (and therefore, so is race).
– However! Many factors shape how people “perform” the expectations assigned to their “race”:
– Social pressures
– Traditions
– Media pressure
– Trends
– What else? Any ideas?
What do these two casts
have in common?….

Nerd culture and the “token brown guy”
– Advances in computer science are not limited to America/” the West”
– Representation of singular South Asian “import” character within larger set of masculinized tropes
of ‘nerd’ culture
– Main point: 1) tokenism, 2) more importantly: how non-white characters’ backgrounds used as
fodder for particular types of jokes about masculinized ‘nerd’ culture
What else do you think might be problematic about the stereotype or trope of the “nerdy brown guy”?
The “model minority”myth
– Context: very large, ongoing influx of Asian students to US Ivy League schools
– “Model Minority” myth: idealization of ‘minority’ (basically: non-White)
groups who are perceived to have successfully reproduced typically American
values over generations (e.g., wealth, social status)
– Asian newcomers and Asian-Americans often looked to as “model minority” in
terms of expectations for performance in STEM
– Problem: Asia is Earth’s largest, most populated continent. Tons of internal
difference among Asians.
– Based on stereotypes.
– Linked with myth is stereotype of extra-studious (“nerdy”) Asians/
Asian-Americans who have poor social skills, self-isolate, etc.
Great source!
Asian and Asian-American students,
computing, and “Personality Ratings”
What’s the harm of the model minority myth?
– Re: issue of race and performativity: Asian students, in general, expected to constantly
demonstrate industrious intellectual capacity and productivity ⇒ social pressure
– At the same time, difficult job market and service economy expects charm, charisma, etc.
– In the case of foreign-born students: unreasonable, unfair to people arriving from foreign
country and learning English as they study.
– Assumption that Asians are at a deficit for skill in social interactions. Therefore, higher demands
placed on them to perform ‘behind the scenes.’
– Harvard study: Asian Americans least likely to be promoted to management
– Asian Americans provide a full, solid “nerd workforce” but undesirable as “the face” of a
Speaking of Harvard…
– 2018 lawsuit revealed that Harvard University consistently ranked/rated Asian applicants lower
on “personality” ratings
Critical Race Theory for HCI
Critical race theory
Critical Race Theory: a theoretical framework originating in the 1970s in order to more critically (thoughtfully,
analytically) engage racial disparities and inequality.
A few of the main points of critical race theory:
– Racism is an ordinary, ‘everyday’ practice
– Race is socially constructed
– New methods are needed to better represent experiences of racialized communities
– Emphasis on value of “story-telling”: privileging the stories, histories, voices of people of color as opposed
to using these histories to advance a particular argument or line of analysis
– Marginalized people should not simply be used as ‘cases’ or ‘evidence’
– Writing about marginalized peoples should always involve working with marginalized peoples to
determine how their stories get told
Main source and excellent academic article for further reading:
Critical race theory for HCI:
Example of “Hashtag Publics”
Concept of “hashtag publics”: a type of online community organization that uses hashtags in order to draw
attention to, and stake a claim in, current social issues
Important point: use of hashtags to draw attention to issue can be read as a type of race-critical HCI because it is a
mode of centering the voices and concerns of community members themselves within larger efforts to address social
See: Rambukkana, N. (Eds.). (2015). Hashtag Publics. Bern, Switzerland: Peter Lang US.
Image source and excellent further reading: Pew Research Center, July 2018, “Activism in the Social Media Age
Examples of
Race-Equitable Designs
Opportunities with Design
Giving voice through design
In 2017, American actress Alyssa Milano
posted on Twitter, “If all the women who have
been sexually harassed or assaulted wrote ‘Me
too’ as a status, we might give people a sense of
the magnitude of the problem,”.
Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Me_Too_movement
Image Source: https://www.pewresearch.org/wp-content/uploads/2020/06/FT_20.06.09_BlackLivesMatter_feature.png
Thank You for your attention!

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