The history of appropriation can be traced from the practices in England in the 18th Century when the monarch maintained financial independence from the Parliament. The Crown was not allowed to access public funds unless the authorization by the Parliament. In 1789, most state’s constitutions were into effect and assigned an appropriation power to the state legislature. No state constitution in that period allowed anyone to draw money from treasury unless legislative authorization. The present U.S Constitution specifically mentions appropriations made by law under Article 1, section 9, and clause 7. The power to direct and control federal spending is one most important legislative tools of Congress. Authorization and Appropriations are two formal federal expenditure processes. The appropriation clause does not provide substantive legislative powers to Congress but limits governmental actions. It means no money can be drawn from treasury unless appropriations are made by Congress. The appropriation clause is an important clause where Congress can exercise over public funds. Appropriation bills are passed annually with the provided fund covering the fiscal year, which is part of the U.S. budget & spending process.
Types of Appropriation Bills
The different types of appropriation bills are mentioned below –
Regular Appropriation Bills: The appropriation bills cover the funding for the federal government for one fiscal year and that are enacted into law. Omnibus spending bills are often considered separately at the beginning of the fiscal year but later on combined because of Congress’s inability to pass them together. Omnibus appropriations are twelve separate pieces of legislation visuallyâ€”a. Agriculture b. Commerce, Justice, and Science c. Defense d. Energy and Water. e. Financial Services f. Homeland Security g. Interior and Environment h. Labour, Health, and Education i. Legislative j. Military & Veterans k. State & Foreign Operations. l. Transport & Housing.
Continuing Resolutions: If regular appropriation bills are not enacted in time, Congress can pass a continuing resolution for a set of times. These generally continue as pre-existing appropriations with minor modifications. This kind of resolution provides funds through the same formula of previous year funding.
Supplemental Appropriations Bills: This type of bill adds additional funding above and beyond what was originally appropriated at the beginning of the fiscal year. These types of bills are used for recovery from natural disasters. The Disaster Relief Appropriation Act, 2013 was passed by Congress to support victims of Hurricane Sandy.
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