Research paper the rwandan genocideon



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Simran Abbas

Professor Gulli

Writing 2


The Rwandan Genocide


The research based on the Rwandan genocide provides an opportunity to understand some of the factors that contributed to the occurrence of the event. The objective of this research will be to focus on the factors that contributed to the occurrence of the genocide and the socio-economic and environmental effect that it had to the nation. From the information acquired from different sources, it is evident that the study provides enlightenment on the main events that led to the occurrence of the Rwandan genocide and the social and economic effects it had towards the conflicting communities. Besides establishing the source of the genocide, the study also incorporates information on external influencers and their roles in the occurrence of the disaster that affected millions if people from Rwanda. With unclear information on the number of deaths and victims from the genocide, it is reasonable to compare diverse information collected by different sources to assist in establishing the precise numbers of victims and deaths from the genocide. This way, one develops clarity on the impact that civil war or ethnic clashes may have towards nation or a society. Comment by Toshiba: You could delete this first sentence because the following one says essentially the same thing. As long as you add “Rwandan” to the following one, you’re fine. Comment by Toshiba: Rwandan Comment by Toshiba: on Comment by Toshiba: of Comment by Toshiba: good, but a bit wordy. If you could make it more concise, without sacrificing content, it would be great.

Thesis statement Comment by Toshiba: no need for this. The thesis should be part of the introduction. Generally, it’s the very last sentence. If you don’t think you can fit it in the introduction you have, you may want to modify that introduction a bit.

Between April and July of 1994, the Rwandan genocide resulted in the death of approximately 800,000 people from the Tutsi ethnic group following exacerbated ethnic predicaments, which has long affected the nation from a socio-economic and environmental perspective. Comment by Toshiba: delete because I think the following which-clause is essential, or restrictive Comment by Toshiba: Do you mean “had,” that is, before the genocide? Comment by Toshiba: I would work some more on the thesis. To me, this is more like the beginning of an introductions than a thesis. You could use some of the ideas you have in the Objectives section below.

Research Outline


The introduction covers basic information about the two conflicting ethnic groups from the Rwandan genocide. Part of the introduction will also focus on the background and possible origin of the conflict that resulted in the violence between the two groups. The final statement of the introduction paragraph will be the thesis statement of the research containing some of the main objectives and purposes of the study. Comment by Toshiba: ok Comment by Toshiba: Oh, I see… Yes, that’s right. You can disregard my comment above, then

Problem statement

The investigation into the Rwandan genocide is essential since different sources have provided unrelated information about the number of deaths. However, most sources tend to share their findings about the main cause of the ethnic conflict and the duration in which the genocide lasted. Therefore, it is necessary to establish the most logical outcomes of the genocide considering that most survivors still suffer from trauma they endured as the clashes of the genocide unfolded. Currently, various media sources are still making attempts to dive deep into the matters associated with the genocide with possible claims of looming unrest over 25 years after a peace treaty was established between the Hutu and Tutsi communities that clashed during the genocide. Comment by Toshiba: of Comment by Toshiba: delete Comment by Toshiba: delete


The long term objective of the study is to investigate and compare different information sources covering the Rwandan genocide in an attempt to establish the depth of its outcome on the ethnic communities that clashed. Current studies offer a seemingly deeper insight on the impact that the genocide may have had on the people of Rwanda and neighboring countries. The main sub-objectives of the research are: Comment by Toshiba: why long term? This is just a final research project for this class…

1) To develop an understanding on the cause of the genocide that involved the two largest ethnic groups in Rwanda;

2) To provide information on the death toll of the genocide victims from the Tutsi through a detailed analysis

3) To review some of the socio-economic and environmental perspective associated with the occurrence of the Rwandan genocide.

Preliminary Literature Review

The preliminary literature review is significant because it demonstrates that previous studies on violence have affiliated humans with propensity to engaging in acts such as the Rwandan genocide. However, the main source of peoples continued survival has to be established in order to ensure that there are no more instances whereby millions of people have to be slaughtered. Through analysis, it is evident that little progress has been achieved on the classification of human violence through war or genocides. Understanding causes, outcomes and effects of violence through an analysis of the Rwandan genocide is groundwork for understanding elements such as national liberation, national renaissance, in addition to restoration of nationhood. Comment by Toshiba: not sure what you mean here… Comment by Toshiba: Honestly, I don’t see the correlation


The main method applied in this study is literature review, whereby it involved constraint identification as well as classification via structured approach as the first step. The research will incorporate a review of different kinds of constraints within the construction of the paper along with their characteristics. Comment by Toshiba: what do you mean?


SECTION 2: ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHYComment by Toshiba: But in the final draft, there should be no annotated bibliography. You only need a standard bibliography

Verpoorten, Marijke. “The Death Toll of the Rwandan Genocide: A Detailed Analysis for Gikongoro Province.”Population60.4 (2005): 331-67

The source argues on the hazardous nature of conducting the exercise of counting the number of people affected by genocide. However, the author claims that the practice is necessary for historical and political reasons. Ideally, the author provides logical reasoning given that he considered the value of keeping records to ensure that people constantly remember the impact that violence had on a nation. By referring to the Rwandan genocide, Verpoorten claims that communes held most of the records available in the modern day. Some of the topics covered in the article comprise of population census, genocide death toll, as well as killing patterns during the genocide. Comment by Toshiba: why hazardous? Comment by Toshiba: yes, this is important Comment by Toshiba: not sure I understand this. What communes?

The article is a useful source because it highlights some of the benefits of keeping track of the profile and numbers of victims for a better understanding on the geographical patterns of the violence witnessed in Rwanda. The information provided within the article is objective since it focuses on the importance of the records from the genocide. The goal of the source is to ensure that researchers understand the value of the genocide records to the history and politics of the country. Clarity of the records plays a significant part in the interpretation of the implications of violence within a nation several years after the catastrophe took place. Comment by Toshiba: ok Comment by Toshiba: ok

The article fits in my research because it bases its argument on the importance of carrying out an evaluation of the numbers as well as profile of Rwandan genocide victims is essential since it is offers a significant platform to develop the geographical pattern of the killings. The article relevant since it is about the importance of keeping records because they provide an appropriate footprint that elaborates various implications of the violence witnessed during the Rwandan genocide that can be applicable in other areas of study affiliated with violence. Comment by Toshiba: Yes, I believe so Comment by Toshiba: is

BBC News Services. Rwanda genocide: 100 days of slaughter, 2019, Accessed 8 Apr. 2021

The main argument of the source by BBC News Services is based on the extensive and agonizing degree of human killings throughout the one hundred days duration of the genocide. According to the source, extremists from the Hutu ethnic community orchestrated the brutal murder of people from the Tutsi community to whom they regarded as their political opponents. The point of the article is to ensure that people get first hand information on the degree of killings that were witnessed during the genocide. Examples of noteworthy topics covered by the article comprise of violence, ethnicity, and the effect of Rwanda genocide. The article is about the one hundred days of the genocide as it attempts to demonstrate the vicious nature of human violence that took place in Rwanda. Comment by Toshiba: delete Comment by Toshiba: –

The source is useful given that it provides valuable information regarding the murders that took place throughout the genocide. Furthermore, the details provided within the article are significant in identifying the impact of divided political perspectives and its implication in influencing ethnicity between communities. When compared to other sources to be used for study, it stands out because of the exceptional approach it takes to address the violence that occurred during the Rwandan genocide. Nonetheless, the goal of the source is to ensure readers get the most appealing and relatable information based on the regional effects that the genocide had within a period of one hundred days. Comment by Toshiba: yes Comment by Toshiba: good

The source addresses violence, which makes it a perfect fit for the research. An integrated scope focusing on the death toll of Tutsis on the hands of Hutus is an illustration of the impact that ethnic diversity had on the nation. The source only adds a valuable approach to the topic, which means it does not change my thoughts. Comment by Toshiba: since you talk about violence, you could also use Gilligan and Zimbardo (see course readings). You don’t have to, but that might help Comment by Toshiba: ok

Clarke, John N.British Media and the Rwandan Genocide. , 2018.

The main arguments presented by Clarke in the book are based on civil conflict and human rights violation that was a common trend in the 1990s. From the authors point of view, it seems as if the issue of humanitarian crises played a more influential role on the development of the globalized media. The information provided in the book is meant to establish the impact that reporting on violence or the violation of human rights has on the development of the media department within the global market. Example of topics addressed in the book comprise of media influence, human rights violation, and humanitarian intervention among others. Each topic has a connection to the impact that events from the Rwandan genocide had on different media channels and their integration of ethics, law, as well as empirical evaluation. Comment by Toshiba: I see… Comment by Toshiba: interesting

An analysis of the diverse content covered in the book, it is logical to state that the mode of reporting implemented by different media agencies regarding the Rwandan genocide has an impact to the understanding of the impact of genocides. Monitoring the mode of approach applied in the process of reporting is significant because it influences public perception of the genocide. The source develops an appropriate connection with other sources listed for the research because it elaborates on the impact that various references to the genocide have on the information provided. Therefore, the information provided on the extent of public discourse along with specific concepts is relevant. Comment by Toshiba: right!

The source fits in the research section that seeks to review some of the socio-economic and environmental perspective associated with the occurrence of the Rwandan genocide. Furthermore, it is useful in the sense that it offers preliminary information on the influence of international media in shaping public opinion about distant crises. None of the information provided in the book changes personal thoughts about the source. However, it increases the scope of understanding the impact of media in shaping public perception concerning issues such as genocides or civil conflict. Comment by Toshiba: ok Comment by Toshiba: but maybe as a secondary source since this is not what you seem to wamt to focus on. You have to have a question guiding the entire research; that is why you need a strong and explicit thesis statement

Moodley, Vadi, Gahima, Alphonse,andMunien, Suveshnee. Environmental causes and impacts of the genocide in Rwanda: Case studies of the towns of Butare and Cyangugu.African Journal on Conflict Resolution, (2011): 103-119. 10.4314/ajcr.v10i2.63313.

The main argument in the article is that the Rwandan genocide jeopardized the human resources, social and cultural resources, in addition to infrastructure. In the information provided, it is evident that the researchers are concerned with the destruction of development facilities along with natural resources leading to negative consequences. The main topics covered in the article comprise of the destruction of socio-economic and environmental facilities. According to the information provided in the article, it is certain that the nation experience tremendous setbacks after the genocide that affected its development progress. Comment by Toshiba: so, this focuses on the effects of the genocide?

The destruction of property and violation of human rights contributed to the greatest drawbacks for the nation. Information provided by the researchers is useful in understanding the impact that civil conflict and violence has towards affecting the social, economic, and developmental factors of a nation. Clearly, the research process has ensured to incorporate articulate information that is objective towards identifying the environmental causes and implication of a genocide to the country. Comment by Toshiba: but you don’t say what these things are specifically…

The source offers reliable information about the genocide and the impact it had towards affecting the lives of various people across the nation. It is helpful in explaining the socio-economic and environmental perspective associated with the occurrence of the Rwandan genocide. Comment by Toshiba: I am sure it does

James Gilligan, James Vrettos; Violence, Morality, and Religion.Tikkun1 November 2018; 33 (4): 4961. doi:

The main argument provided by Gilligan is that human propensity is a leading risk that influences people to engage in violent acts such as war as well as genocides. The researcher expresses concern over the current abilities of humans to destroy other individuals lives. The point of the article is to establish the alarming state that humans have developed the means to destroy other human lives with the possession of deadly weapons. The main topics addressed in the source comprise of violence, moral factors, in addition to religion as major factors affecting human inclination. Comment by Toshiba: right Comment by Toshiba: yes

The article is useful because it identifies various examples of contemporary factors that have resulted from human evolution. Focusing on the sources of risks in the modern day society is an appealing angle of research that offers insight on the major challenges leading to human violence. With that angle of research approach, the information becomes reliable and objective.

The decision by the author to concentrate on matters such as violence and morality makes the source suitable for the research. The review of risks affiliated with human evolution is helpful in completing the research with decisive factual evidence. Comment by Toshiba: agreed!

Fanon, Frantz. Concerning Violence.The Wretched Of The Earth,pp 35-106.

The argument of the research is based on international along with intercultural affairs as the author attempts to provide prescriptions for personal and collectivities seeking cultural and national liberation. The source provides a conclusive underscore on the value of information provided on African liberations. Comment by Toshiba: yes, you can argue that the genocide was a consequence of the Belgian colonization of Rwanda

The assessment focused on local population is essential since it provides a tangible source of information connecting it to other sources explaining the deaths and impacts of the Rwandan genocide, which is part of the research objective.

The source is resourceful in determining the most prolific pattern of events as they unfolded starting with cause and presenting the outcome of the violence. The research shapes personal enlightenment on the negative effects of the genocide to the growth of the nation, which has an impact on personal thoughts about the topic. Comment by Toshiba: not sure I understand this



To sum up, the study establishes the source of the genocide, the study also incorporates information on external influencers and their roles in the occurrence of the disaster that affected millions if people from Rwanda. It has an integration of ethics, law, as well as empirical evaluation is an ideal strategy being implemented by the media in obtaining more cohesive interpretation of the chemistry aligned with media-public policy as they cover information on genocide and information people about the actual turn of events.



Works Cited Comment by Toshiba: Yes, this is all the bibliography you need

BBC News Services. Rwanda genocide: 100 days of slaughter, 2019, Accessed 8 Apr. 2021

Clarke, John N.British Media and the Rwandan Genocide. , 2018.

Fanon, Frantz. Concerning Violence.The Wretched Of The Earth, pp 35-106.

James Gilligan, James Vrettos; Violence, Morality, and Religion.Tikkun1 November 2018; 33 (4): 4961. doi:

Moodley, Vadi, Gahima, Alphonse, and Munien, Suveshnee. Environmental causes and impacts of the genocide in Rwanda: Case studies of the towns of Butare and Cyangugu.African Journal on Conflict Resolution, (2011): 103-119. 10.4314/ajcr.v10i2.63313.

Verpoorten, Marijke. “The Death Toll of the Rwandan Genocide: A Detailed Analysis for Gikongoro Province.”Population60.4 (2005): 331-67

A short annotated bibliography should have been part of the proposal, and, as a matter of fact, you included one in your proposal. In the first draft, you don’t need an annotated bibliography. What you have here is not satisfactory as a paper. You do have a lot of information and make some good observations, but you need to rewrite all of this as a paper. You need an introduction containing an explicit, and possible strong, thesis statement. Then you need a few body paragraphs where you quote and paraphrase from your sources and elaborate on that. Finally, you need a conclusion and a Works Cited section.

All of this must be in an essay format. Again, having a strong thesis and a clear research question will help. You have to focus on that question and try to find an answer. So, what you have here needs to be reorganized. Some of it needs to be removed (the paper is about the Rwandan genocide, not the sources), and what is left needs to be elaborated on. You should also make sure your paper has unity. As it stands, it doesn’t because it’s just a list and discussion of sourcesan annotated bibliography, in other words.

Hope this helps, but please let me know if you have any questions.

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