The CFA Institute Research Foundation is a
not-for-profit organization established to promote
the development and dissemination of relevant
research for investment practitioners worldwide.
Neither the Research Foundation, CFA Institute, nor the publicationâ€™s editorial staff is responsible for facts and opinions presented in this publication. This publication reflects the views of the author(s) and does not
represent the official views of the CFA Institute Research Foundation.
The CFA Institute Research Foundation and the Research Foundation logo are trademarks
owned by The CFA Institute Research Foundation. CFAÂ®, Chartered Financial AnalystÂ®,
AIMR-PPSÂ®, and GIPSÂ® are just a few of the trademarks owned by CFA Institute. To
view a list of CFA Institute trademarks and the Guide for the Use of CFA Institute Marks,
please visit our website at www.cfainstitute.org.
Â© 2016 The CFA Institute Research Foundation. All rights reserved.
No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted,
in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise,
without the prior written permission of the copyright holder.
This publication is designed to provide accurate and authoritative information in regard
to the subject matter covered. It is sold with the understanding that the publisher is not
engaged in rendering legal, accounting, or other professional service. If legal advice or other
expert assistance is required, the services of a competent professional should be sought.
Cover Image Photo Credit: bunhill/Getty Images
Abby Farson Pratt
Julia Mackesson, PMP
Standards and Advocacy
Publishing Technology Specialist
Â© 2016 CFA Institute Research Foundation. All rights reserved. iii
Olivier Accominotti is associate professor of economic history at the
London School of Economics and Political Science and an affiliate at the
Centre for Economic Policy Research. He is a specialist in international financial history and has published extensively in this area. Professor Accominotti
is also a member of the editorial board of Financial History Review, and his
current projects focus on currency markets and the international propagation of financial crises. He holds a PhD in economics from Sciences Po Paris
and has held postdoctoral or visiting positions at Princeton University; the
University of California, Berkeley; the European University Institute; and the
Bank of France.
Jan Annaert is professor of finance at the University of Antwerp and at
the Antwerp Management School. He is chairman of the Study Centre on
Stock Exchanges and Enterprises (SCOB), the universityâ€™s research center
for financial history. Professor Annaert also serves as independent director
on the board of mutual funds and is an external member of the Pricing and
Valuation Committee of KBC Asset Management. His teaching and research
interests include portfolio theory, asset pricing, financial risk management,
and financial history. Professor Annaert has published his research in a variety of publications, including Cliometrica, Explorations in Economic History,
Financial History Review, the Journal of Banking and Finance, and the Journal
of International Money and Finance.
Stephen J. Brown joined Monash Business School as professor of finance
in January 2016, transitioning to emeritus status at New York University
(NYU) Stern School of Business. Before joining NYU in 1986, Professor
Brown worked at Bell Telephone Laboratories, where he spent time as district manager at AT&T Pension Fund, as well as at Yale University. He has
published widely in a range of high-quality journals and is the author of five
books. Professor Brown has recently been appointed executive editor of the
Financial Analysts JournalÂ®. He graduated from Monash University in 1971
and earned an MBA and a PhD from the University of Chicago in 1976.
Frans Buelens is senior researcher at the Study Centre on Stock
Exchanges and Enterprises (SCOB) at the University of Antwerp. He is
responsible for supervising the work on the digitization of the Brussels and
Antwerp Stock Exchanges. Dr. Buelens is the author (and coauthor) of several books, including Congo 1885â€“1960 and Beurzen van BelgiÃ«: een geschiedenis
van het beurswezen, 1801â€“1867 (Stock Exchanges of Belgium: A History of Stock
Exchange Life). He has published in Economic History Review,
Get Professional Assignment Help Cheaply
Are you busy and do not have time to handle your assignment? Are you scared that your paper will not make the grade? Do you have responsibilities that may hinder you from turning in your assignment on time? Are you tired and can barely handle your assignment? Are your grades inconsistent?
Whichever your reason is, it is valid! You can get professional academic help from our service at affordable rates. We have a team of professional academic writers who can handle all your assignments.
Why Choose Our Academic Writing Service?
- Plagiarism free papers
- Timely delivery
- Any deadline
- Skilled, Experienced Native English Writers
- Subject-relevant academic writer
- Adherence to paper instructions
- Ability to tackle bulk assignments
- Reasonable prices
- 24/7 Customer Support
- Get superb grades consistently
Online Academic Help With Different Subjects
Students barely have time to read. We got you! Have your literature essay or book review written without having the hassle of reading the book. You can get your literature paper custom-written for you by our literature specialists.
Do you struggle with finance? No need to torture yourself if finance is not your cup of tea. You can order your finance paper from our academic writing service and get 100% original work from competent finance experts.
While psychology may be an interesting subject, you may lack sufficient time to handle your assignments. Don’t despair; by using our academic writing service, you can be assured of perfect grades. Moreover, your grades will be consistent.
Engineering is quite a demanding subject. Students face a lot of pressure and barely have enough time to do what they love to do. Our academic writing service got you covered! Our engineering specialists follow the paper instructions and ensure timely delivery of the paper.
In the nursing course, you may have difficulties with literature reviews, annotated bibliographies, critical essays, and other assignments. Our nursing assignment writers will offer you professional nursing paper help at low prices.
Truth be told, sociology papers can be quite exhausting. Our academic writing service relieves you of fatigue, pressure, and stress. You can relax and have peace of mind as our academic writers handle your sociology assignment.
We take pride in having some of the best business writers in the industry. Our business writers have a lot of experience in the field. They are reliable, and you can be assured of a high-grade paper. They are able to handle business papers of any subject, length, deadline, and difficulty!
We boast of having some of the most experienced statistics experts in the industry. Our statistics experts have diverse skills, expertise, and knowledge to handle any kind of assignment. They have access to all kinds of software to get your assignment done.
Writing a law essay may prove to be an insurmountable obstacle, especially when you need to know the peculiarities of the legislative framework. Take advantage of our top-notch law specialists and get superb grades and 100% satisfaction.
What discipline/subjects do you deal in?
We have highlighted some of the most popular subjects we handle above. Those are just a tip of the iceberg. We deal in all academic disciplines since our writers are as diverse. They have been drawn from across all disciplines, and orders are assigned to those writers believed to be the best in the field. In a nutshell, there is no task we cannot handle; all you need to do is place your order with us. As long as your instructions are clear, just trust we shall deliver irrespective of the discipline.
Are your writers competent enough to handle my paper?
Our essay writers are graduates with bachelor's, masters, Ph.D., and doctorate degrees in various subjects. The minimum requirement to be an essay writer with our essay writing service is to have a college degree. All our academic writers have a minimum of two years of academic writing. We have a stringent recruitment process to ensure that we get only the most competent essay writers in the industry. We also ensure that the writers are handsomely compensated for their value. The majority of our writers are native English speakers. As such, the fluency of language and grammar is impeccable.
What if I don’t like the paper?
There is a very low likelihood that you won’t like the paper.
- When assigning your order, we match the paper’s discipline with the writer’s field/specialization. Since all our writers are graduates, we match the paper’s subject with the field the writer studied. For instance, if it’s a nursing paper, only a nursing graduate and writer will handle it. Furthermore, all our writers have academic writing experience and top-notch research skills.
- We have a quality assurance that reviews the paper before it gets to you. As such, we ensure that you get a paper that meets the required standard and will most definitely make the grade.
In the event that you don’t like your paper:
- The writer will revise the paper up to your pleasing. You have unlimited revisions. You simply need to highlight what specifically you don’t like about the paper, and the writer will make the amendments. The paper will be revised until you are satisfied. Revisions are free of charge
- We will have a different writer write the paper from scratch.
- Last resort, if the above does not work, we will refund your money.
Will the professor find out I didn’t write the paper myself?
Not at all. All papers are written from scratch. There is no way your tutor or instructor will realize that you did not write the paper yourself. In fact, we recommend using our assignment help services for consistent results.
What if the paper is plagiarized?
We check all papers for plagiarism before we submit them. We use powerful plagiarism checking software such as SafeAssign, LopesWrite, and Turnitin. We also upload the plagiarism report so that you can review it. We understand that plagiarism is academic suicide. We would not take the risk of submitting plagiarized work and jeopardize your academic journey. Furthermore, we do not sell or use prewritten papers, and each paper is written from scratch.
When will I get my paper?
You determine when you get the paper by setting the deadline when placing the order. All papers are delivered within the deadline. We are well aware that we operate in a time-sensitive industry. As such, we have laid out strategies to ensure that the client receives the paper on time and they never miss the deadline. We understand that papers that are submitted late have some points deducted. We do not want you to miss any points due to late submission. We work on beating deadlines by huge margins in order to ensure that you have ample time to review the paper before you submit it.
Will anyone find out that I used your services?
We have a privacy and confidentiality policy that guides our work. We NEVER share any customer information with third parties. Noone will ever know that you used our assignment help services. It’s only between you and us. We are bound by our policies to protect the customer’s identity and information. All your information, such as your names, phone number, email, order information, and so on, are protected. We have robust security systems that ensure that your data is protected. Hacking our systems is close to impossible, and it has never happened.
How our Assignment Help Service Works
1. Place an order
You fill all the paper instructions in the order form. Make sure you include all the helpful materials so that our academic writers can deliver the perfect paper. It will also help to eliminate unnecessary revisions.
2. Pay for the order
Proceed to pay for the paper so that it can be assigned to one of our expert academic writers. The paper subject is matched with the writer’s area of specialization.
3. Track the progress
You communicate with the writer and know about the progress of the paper. The client can ask the writer for drafts of the paper. The client can upload extra material and include additional instructions from the lecturer. Receive a paper.
4. Download the paper
The paper is sent to your email and uploaded to your personal account. You also get a plagiarism report attached to your paper.