The different types of appropriation bills are mentioned below –
Regular Appropriation Bills: The appropriation bills cover the funding for the federal government for one fiscal year and that are enacted into law. Omnibus spending bills are often considered separately at the beginning of the fiscal year but later on combined because of Congress’s inability to pass them together. Omnibus appropriations are twelve separate pieces of legislation visuallyâ€”a. Agriculture b. Commerce, Justice, and Science c. Defense d. Energy and Water. e. Financial Services f. Homeland Security g. Interior and Environment h. Labour, Health, and Education i. Legislative j. Military & Veterans k. State & Foreign Operations. l. Transport & Housing.
Continuing Resolutions: If regular appropriation bills are not enacted in time, Congress can pass a continuing resolution for a set of times. These generally continue as pre-existing appropriations with minor modifications. This kind of resolution provides funds through the same formula of previous year funding.
Supplemental Appropriations Bills: This type of bill adds additional funding above and beyond what was originally appropriated at the beginning of the fiscal year. These types of bills are used for recovery from natural disasters. The Disaster Relief Appropriation Act, 2013 was passed by Congress to support victims of Hurricane Sandy.
Scope of Appropriation Statute
Only the specified object comes under the application of the Appropriation clause.
When original appropriation remains unexpended, and re appropriation of the unexpended amount is for another purpose, then that amount shall be accounted for as a new appropriation.
Annual appropriation law is for rivers and harbors, lighthouses, public buildings, or the pay of navy and marine corps and is permanent. It is available after the fiscal year covered by the law.
Critical features of Appropriation Clause
An appropriation is a specification of money that acts as a regulator for the amount of money to be spent.
Appropriations also must specify powers, activities, and purposes, what one simply calls objects.
Appropriations are applied to objects for which the appropriations are made except provided by law.
Congress limits the duration of appropriations to two years, and within the time specified, appropriation is required to be made. Apart from annual appropriations, larger capital projects may have a longer duration. The appropriation clause is an important aspect of the U.S. Constitution that promotes transparency and accountability in the Stateâ€™s affairs. Information regarding Appropriation Acts passed in every fiscal year is made available to the citizens in order to maintain public transparency. Such steps also promote the distribution of fund allocation in a systematic way as allocation is done under three types of appropriation bills, namely Regular Appropriation Bill, Continuing Bills, and Supplemental Bills.
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